Maharshi Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra Summaries
About 300 BC, the great sage of India, Maharshi Patanjali, created the Yoga Sutra. Only on this basis did Indian yoga really take shape, and the yoga practice was officially defined as an eight-branch system. Maharshi Patanjali endowed all the theories and knowledge of yoga to form a complete theoretical and practical system. Maharshi Patanjali pioneered a holistic yoga system. So Patanjali is revered as the ancestor of yoga.
Who was Patanjali?
Yoga Founder name:Patanjali
Table of Content
1. Ancestors of Yoga
3. Yoga Sutra
4. Yoga Summaries
5. Eight Branch Law
Ancestor of yoga, the origin
About 300 BC, the great sage of India, maharshi Patanjali, created the Yoga Sutra. Only on this basis did Indian yoga really take shape, and the yoga practice was officially established as an eight-branch system. Maharshi Patanjali is a saint of great significance to yoga. He wrote the Yoga Sutra, which endowed all the theories and knowledge of yoga to form a complete theoretical and practical system. In this book, he explained the definition of yoga, the content of yoga, the changes that yoga brings to the body, and so on. Before Patanjali, yoga had a long practice period, but no one gave a systematic explanation of yoga. Patanjali created a holistic yoga system. So Maharshi Patanjali is revered as the ancestor of yoga.
In the world of yoga, Maharshi Patanjali is unmatched. Like Buddha, Krishna, Christ, Mahavira, Mohammed, or Chalatuste, he is a great saint of enlightenment. As far as the world of yoga is concerned, Maharshi Patanjali is the greatest name. This person is rare. No other name can be compared with Maharshi Patanjali. For the first time in the history of mankind, yoga has been brought to a scientific state. He has made religion a science of pure laws, and faith is not needed.
So-called religion requires faith. There is no difference between a religion and another religion. The only difference is the faith. The Muslims have a certain belief, the Hindus have another belief, and the Christians have another belief. The only difference is the belief. As far as faith is concerned, yoga has nothing to say.
Yoga doesn’t tell you to believe anything. Yoga tells you to experience. It’s like science tells you to experiment and yoga tells you to experience. Experiment and experience are the same, but their directions are different. Experiment means something you do externally, and experience means something you do internally. Experience is internal experiment.
Science tells you not to believe, but to be as skeptical as possible, but also not to disbelieve, because disbelief is also a belief that you can believe in God or believe in the concept of “no God”. You can say that God exists with a fanatical attitude, and you can say the exact opposite with the same fanaticism – God does not exist.
Atheists and theists are people who believe, but belief or belief is not the domain of science. Science means to experience something “yes” and does not require faith. Therefore, the second thing to keep in mind is that yoga is existential, empirical, and experimental. It does not require faith, does not require faith, it only requires courage to experience, but that is what people lack.
You can easily believe, because in the belief you will not be changed, the belief is something that is imposed on you, something superficial.
Through belief, your existence has not been changed, and you have not experienced some kind of mutation.
You may be a Hindu, but the next day you can become a Christian. It ’s just a change.
You can have the Jeddah to change to the Bible. You can also change it to the Koran, but the one who held the Jeddah. And now the person holding the Bible or the Koran remains the same, he just changed his belief. Belief is like clothing. Nothing is changed. You remain.
Faith is easy, because you are not really asked to do anything, he is just a superficial dress, a decoration, at any time, you can set it aside if you like it. Yoga is not conviction, that is why it is difficult and laborious. Sometimes it seems impossible. It is an existential method. You will find the truth, but not through faith, but through your own experience, through your own attainment. That means you will have to be completely changed. Your point of view, your way of life, your mind, your mind must be completely shattered, something new must be created, and only with those new things can you be in contact with the real being.
So yoga is both a death and a new life, it’s both. As you are now, you will have to die. Unless you die, the new one cannot be born. The new one is hidden in you. To it, you are just a seed. The seed must fall down and be absorbed by the soil. The seed must die, and only then can the new one rise from you. Your death will become your new life. Yoga is both a death and a new birth, both. You cannot regenerate unless you are ready to die, so that is not a matter of changing beliefs.
Yoga is not a philosophy. It is not a religion, it is not a philosophy, it is not something you can think about, it is something you must become.
Thinking is useless, thinking is only carried out in your mind, it is not really deep into the root of your existence, it is not all of you, your heart is your deepest center.
Yoga takes into account your entire existence, taking into account your roots, it is not philosophical, so with Patanjali, let us not think.
With Patanjali, we have to try to understand the ultimate law of existence – the law of human transmutation, the law of how to die and how to regenerate, and the law of the new order of existence, that is why Yoga is called a science.
Maharshi Patanjali is rare. He is an enlightened person like Buddha, Krishna, Christ, Mahavira, Mohammed or Chalatuste, but he is different in one respect. Buddha, Krishna, Christ, Mahavira, Mohammed or Chalatuste, none of them had a scientific attitude. They were the great founders of religion. They changed the whole of the human mind Form and its structure. But their method is not very scientific.
Patanjali is like Einstein in the world of Buddha. He could have been easily like Einstein, Ball, Max Planck or Heisenberg.
The 8 Branches of Maharshi Patanjali recorded in the Yoga Sutra:
- Yamas: refers to external control, the moral precepts of the universe.
- Niyamas: refers to internal control and self-purification through self-discipline.
- Asanas: refers to yoga postures, also called asanas.
- Pranayama: refers to breathing rhythmically and controlling exhalation.
- Pratyahara: The release of the spirit from the enslavement of sensations and external things means that the sensation disappears and it controls the heart.
- Dharana: Consciousness focuses on one thing.
- Dhyana: Consciousness continues to flow into the target, also known as transference.
- Samadhi: The consciousness is fully integrated into the goal and seems to be absent.
The three steps of concentrating, entering into the god, and uniting the god are collectively called Samyama. Mastering this method, the ultimate wisdom appears.
College: Patanjali Yoga Academy
Patanjali, the ancestor of yoga, is generally believed to have been born in Ra’r’h, India, between 200 and 500 BC.
According to legend, Patanjali’s mother, Gonika ‘, was a full-fledged yogi, and she had always wanted to pass what she learned to a wise man but failed.
Gonika ideally said that she had little left in her life, and she prayed to the sun god, hoping that Liu would give her a sage she was looking for.
She held the water in her hands and closed her eyes to pray to the sun god.
When she was about to offer water to the sun god, she opened her eyes and saw a little snake in her hand. The little snake instantly turned into an adult form and said to her, “I want to be your child.” Cornica agreed and named him Patanjali.
Meaning of Patanjali
Pat means falling, and an’jali means hands folded, because Maharshi Patanjali is like someone who fell into her hands from the sky, so it is named Patanjali (Hindi: पतंजलि).
Legend has it that Maharshi Patanjali was the god of serpents Adisesa who reincarnated to become the ancestor of yoga under the blessing of Lord Shiva in order to write Dafa and devote himself to the sacred dance.
Patanjali Yoga Academy
The Patanjali Yoga Academy in India is located in the holy city of Haridwar near Rishikesh, a yoga mecca in northern India. The city is located at the foot of the Himalayas more than 200 kilometers north of Delhi, and the Ganges flows into the plains. Therefore, it is also called “Henghe Men” here.
Adhering to the traditional essence of Indian yoga in teaching, the college has formed its own unique teaching system in combination with the historical heritage of Patanjali culture.
The college curriculum is comprehensive and comprehensive, which not only enables students to gain benefits in such professional knowledge as asana, breathing, and meditation. It also excavates and organizes yoga-related knowledge from philosophy, medicine, sociology and natural sciences. It also teaches to each student so that everyone can understand the meaning of yoga more broadly and know how to practice it, so as to further spread the purest yoga to everyone in the world.
At the same time, the Ayurvedic Yoga Therapy Yoga Course taught by the world-renowned Swami Ramdev as the chief master has also been well received worldwide. The outstanding achievements of Master Swami Randford and the authentic inheritance of Patanjali yoga culture have made the Indian Patanjali Yoga Academy unique and renowned in the world of yoga!
India Patanjali Yoga Academy Co., Ltd
India Patanjali Yoga Academy Co., Ltd. is the world’s oldest and most authoritative yoga college and yoga instructor qualification certification institution. Patanjali is very popular in the USA as well.
In 2012, the college hired the scholar and calligrapher poet Lusa as the executive director of Greater China of Patanjali Yoga Institute Co., Ltd.
In 2015, the college invested in Hunan to establish the Patanjali Yoga Academy China Branch “Patangali Yoga College (Hunan) Co., Ltd.” in Hunan.
The City Administration for Industry and Commerce issued a business license, a holding company invested and established by the Indian Patanjali Yoga Academy in Mainland China. Patanjali Yoga Academy (Hunan) Co., Ltd. is the only branch of Patanjali Yoga Academy in Mainland China.
It is the only legal representative of Patanjali Yoga Academy in India to conduct yoga training in China and authorize Patanjali Yoga Academy in India. Coach training base joining, yoga coach assessment and issue of yoga coach certificate and other matters.
What is Yoga Sutra?
The Yoga Sutra, written by patanjali, the ancestor of yoga, gives all the theories and knowledge of yoga. In this book, he elaborates the definition of yoga, the content of yoga, and the changes that yoga brings to the body and many more. Before Patanjali, yoga had a long practice period, but no one gave a systematic explanation of yoga. Maharshi Patanjali created a holistic yoga system.
Maharshi Patanjali pointed out that yoga is not a theory, not existence and theory. It is more a practice. If you want to become a true yoga person, it is not theoretical yoga, but practice yoga. Become a yoga person.
Patanjali’s purpose for yoga is clear: Yoga teaches you how to control your brain (CHITTA). So Patanjali is revered as the ancestor of yoga.
Religiously, the Yoga Sutra belongs to Brahmanism, which is both different and related to Buddhism
Brahmanism believes that everything has a supreme ontology-Brahma. (Emphasizing the attributes of the soul) Buddhism believes that things have no ontology but only reality (Emphasizing the characteristics of the soul). But the content of the Yoga Sutra is basically consistent with the way of Buddhist meditation, because yoga is a Buddhist technique.
Yoga is the science of the soul, the science of practice, the foundation of all religions, and the most fundamental principles and methods of all religions are It ’s all said in the Yoga Sutra. Yoga is like flour, and all religions in the world are like buns, buns, bread, cakes, etc.
The origin of Brahmanism can be traced back to the period of the Indus civilization in 5000 BC.
Brahmanism believes that all things have the highest entity – Brahma, and the highest state of spirituality is “Brahman-I”. This Chinese Taoist thought of “Oneness between Man and Nature” also agrees.
Written in Sanskrit, yoga is very difficult to translate. There are dozens of existing English translations, but the translation methods are different, and sometimes the clauses are different. The Yoga Sutra by the great Yoga sage Patanjali is a fundamental classic of the Yoga school.
The scriptures record the profound expositions of the ancient Indian masters on almost all aspects of sacredness, humanity, nature, materialism, body, spirit and Sanskrit sounds.
The “Yoga Sutra” guides yogis to complete their spiritual journey. The book is full of explorations of the physical and mental world, telling people the most fundamental morals. All wisdom in the book cannot be fully explained by posterity. Books. The manifestation of the thoughts of the Yoga Sutra in the life of a yogi.
What is the history of Yoga Sutra?
The Yoga Sutra is about 300 BC, and historical relics indicate that yoga had been practiced in India since 3000 BC. The greatness of Maharshi Patanjali is that he systematically organized the various denominations that were popular at the time without any prejudice, and combined with the philosophy system of classical number theory, so that yoga was recognized by Indian orthodox philosophy. Yoga also affected Indian philosophy. And achieved the core position of Indian civilization.
The Yoga Sutra is written in Sanskrit and is very difficult to translate. There are dozens of existing English translations, but the translation methods are different, and sometimes the clauses are different. This translation is only based on the four English translations on hand. It should only be used as a rough reference, not as a definite version.
Chapter 1 Yogic Meditation
Now we are going to explain what yoga is. Yoga is learning to control change in consciousness. In this way, the perceiver can return to his true colors. Otherwise, we will agree with those changes. There are five types of those transitions, painful and unpainful: knowledge, fallacy, fantasy, sleep, and memory. Perception, inference, and evidence are all knowledge. Wrong knowledge is fallacy and does not come from reality. Literary knowledge but no object is fantasy. The loss of awakening produces sleep. What is left of those things that have been experienced is memory. By exercising and not being attached to things, you can control all of them. Perseverance is exercise.
After a long period of time, a solid foundation can be laid. Disobedience means no desire for what you see and hear. “Since I know my true self, I have no desire for everything in the world.” This is the highest.
The highest meditation is the consciousness of truth, discernment, and joy produced by the union of the true self and the universe.
Another type of meditation is achieved by abandoning the mundane and enduring exercises, which can dissolve those old habits. T
hose inexistent beings, without the body, are completely dissolved into the highest nature. Others have to pass through the stages of confidence, struggle, memory, meditation, and intelligence.
Some people are very willing and can soon enter yoga meditation. From mild to intense exercise, the best results. This can also be achieved by obedience to God. The Spirit of God is unaffected by any nature or action. He is the source of all knowledge. He is an ancient and even a mentor to this day. His symbol is the Holy Voice (AUM). This sound should be chanted often to achieve success. It can reach the consciousness of the universe and make everything accessible.
Illness, laziness, hesitation, weakness, material desires, myths, inattention and unstable attention are all obstacles that distract consciousness. There are also anxiety, tension, and uneven breathing. Practicing yoga can overcome all this. Peace of mind comes from friendship, love, joy and equality.
Treating the happy and the suffering, the worthy and the unworthy equally can make the consciousness pure. Controlling breathing can overcome all of this. Subtle consciousness produces the highest change in consciousness and calms the mind. This is due to the transcending, inner light. Desire is also controlled by consciousness, also due to knowledge of dreams and sleep. This is also because of meditation exercises that union can dominate from small to atomic to infinite.
The true perception is that the perceiver, the ability to perceive and the perceiver are completely transparent. The perceiver can visualize the object like a flawless gem. True knowledge is an intuitive object. At the same time, the thinking has been transformed, and the memory has been purified, so that the object can be presented without thinking. Subtle objects are presented without distinction. The above is called seeded meditation. But if meditation without distinction is reached, the true self is presented.
Wisdom is united with truth. This is quite different from verbal reasoning. This state of meditation will surpass the previous habit of thinking. Once this control is achieved, seedless meditation is achieved.
Chapter II Yogic Practice
Yoga is to discipline the body, learn the scriptures, and obey God. The purpose is to promote meditation and remove the root cause of the obstacle.
Ignorance, egotism, obsession, aversion, and greed are the five obstacles to life. Ignorance is the breeding ground for the remaining items, whether sleepy, mild, obstructive or intense. Ignorance recognizes those who are not eternal, impure, painful, and not the true self, as eternal, pure, pleasant, and true self. Ego is the ability of the perceptual to identify with consciousness. Fascination is the pursuit of desire. Disgust lives in pain.
Covetousness persists among those who are educated and will fuel itself. While these obstacles are still subtle, the opposite can be done to remove them. If it takes shape, you can meditate to eliminate it. Those obstacles come from the past professions and act in visible and invisible realms. Once rooted, it affects the condition of life, the length of life, and various experiences.
Due to the difference between doing good and doing evil, happy fruit and bitter fruit are produced. For wise people, everything is bitter. Because everything is changing, things become their opposite states. The pain that has not yet come can be avoided.
The cause of pain is the perception of the perceived by the perceived. There are various things and consciousnesses in this world, which are to liberate us from this universe. There are naturally four characteristics: specific, non-specific, differentiated, and indiscriminate. The conscious person is only the consciousness itself. Although pure, he still sees things through his thinking, and the ego allows him to identify with this thinking. The nature of this perception is for the benefit of the perceiver.
Although these are ruined for the awakened, they remain for others. When the perceiver meets the perceived, this world is created. Ignorance is the reason for it. If there is no ignorance, and there is no conscious person meeting the conscious person, the conscious person will be free. Elimination of ignorance requires constant discernment.
There are seven stages of intelligence. As knowledge grows, it is revealed one after another. Through the exercise of yoga, those contamination will be removed by the light of knowledge, giving birth to discerning wisdom. Precepts, refinement, body adjustment, breath adjustment, distraction, concentration, meditation and samadhi are the eight branches of yoga.
According to Maharshi Patanjali ideology non-violence, no lying, no stealing, no indulgence and no greed is an unbreakable vow. No matter when, where, under what circumstances or class. Internal and external cleanliness, contentment, control of the body and senses, learning classics, obedience to God, are all advanced.
If there is an idea against yoga, use the opposite. Destructive instincts are harmful thoughts. Whether it is to do it yourself, to induce students, or to identify with it. If greed, anger, and confusion become the motive, whether mild, moderate, or violent, it will bring endless suffering and ignorance, so the opposite must be developed. As long as nonviolence is determined, hostility will be eliminated. Without lying, you can enjoy the rewards of your work. Without stealing, you can enjoy wealth.
Without indulgence, you can enjoy spiritual strength. Without covetousness, knowledge of life can be obtained.
Cleanliness protects the body from being infected by contact with others. Spiritual purity produces awakening and control of the senses.
Contentment produces the greatest happiness. The perfection of the body and the senses destroys the uncleanness through the precepts.
From continuous learning to unity with heaven. Samadhi is created by the concentration of attention with God. Position must be firm and comfortable. Uneasy control, meditation on infinity, can do it. This way, you will not be subject to dual sexual harassment. Once you have mastered your posture, control your breathing.
Controlling inhalation and exhalation is to adjust your breath. Outside, inside, and even still, all are adjusted according to time, place and number, breathing is thin and long. The fourth is that breathing is neither outside nor inside. The cover of light was then removed. Then the spirit is suitable for meditation. If the mind is out of consciousness and the consciousness is not mixed with the senses, the attention becomes one with itself. The highest control over the senses is achieved.
Chapter 3 Meditation Power
Gaze is putting consciousness on one thing. Entering is a constant perception. Samadhi is the object of meditation only, and its consciousness disappears. These three form meditation. By mastering meditation, you get the light of wisdom. This mastery goes through different stages. These three are more intrinsic than previously discussed. But even these three are outside the realm of seedlessness. That state of control is the activity of control over the mind, and those movements that reduce the habit can be discerned before and after meditation.
This meditation can distinguish two very similar things, even if they have the same characteristics and status. Intuitive knowledge knows everything and its nature. When the true self becomes as pure as the energy of life, it reaches perfection and freedom.
Chapter 4 Freedom
Supernatural powers can be obtained from previous births, from drugs, from mantras, and from meditation. The transformation of life from low to high is due to natural creativity. Whether it is good or bad behavior does not directly cause metamorphosis, but only removes obstacles to natural forces, just as a farmer can remove water from a field to plow furrows for irrigation. Consciousness can be generated by the power of the true self. That original consciousness still controls those created consciousnesses.
Only those consciousnesses who reach Samadhi can be free from desire and become supreme. The yogi’s behavior is neither black nor white. But for others it’s three things: black, white, and a mix of the two. From these three, the corresponding results are shown. Even with the barriers of time, space, and species, those results can persist because of memory and habits.
The pursuit of joy is eternal, and desire and habits do not begin. It is caused by cause, effect, support, and object, without which it would not exist. The past and the future exist according to their forms and principles. They are either hidden or obvious, each according to its characteristics.
Everything is one because this is the evolution of the whole. The objects are the same, but if the consciousness is different, it will be different when seen. Whether something is known or unknown depends on whether it can be recognized by the mind.
Knowing or unknowing things depends on the state to which the mind is adjusted. The adjustment of consciousness is always known to the perceptual, because the eternal spirit is immutable. Those minds cannot illuminate themselves because they are recognized as objects. The perceiver and the object cannot be perceived at the same time.
Consciousness is known by another consciousness, which causes infinite retreat and leads to ideological confusion. When the mind becomes a higher form of spirit body, a higher consciousness can be perceived. In all perceptions, perception is colored by the perception.
The mind is regulated by desire to work for the Supreme, because of its hybrid nature. For those discerning consciousnesses, their true self is separated from the mind. With the awareness of discrimination, freedom can be achieved. Sometimes thinking comes from past habits. As mentioned above, removing these habits is removing obstacles.
Those who have achieved complete discrimination and completely abandoned all desires are called samadhis. At this point, all the pain has been eliminated, and various causal obstacles can be eliminated, and freedom can be gained.
Knowledge removes all obscuration, becomes infinite, and the role of senses becomes small. After completing their goals, the evolution of the three states ceases. Evolving to the end, it became an obvious transformation. When the three states have completed their purpose, they have reached a state of freedom and learned all their knowledge. This is absolute freedom.
The Yoga Sutra by the great Yoga sage Patanjali is a fundamental classic of the Yoga school. The scriptures record the profound expositions of the ancient Indian masters on almost all aspects of sacredness, humanity, nature, materialism, body, spirit and Sanskrit sounds.
The “Yoga Sutra” guides yogis to complete their spiritual journey. The book is full of explorations of the physical and mental world, telling people the most fundamental morals. All wisdom in the book cannot be fully explained by posterity books. The thoughts of the Yoga Sutra are reflected everywhere in the life of a yogi.
The Yoga Sutra is about 300 BC, and historical relics indicate that yoga had been practiced in India since 3000 BC. The greatness of Maharshi Patanjali is that he systematically organized the various denominations that were popular at the time without any prejudice. He combined with the philosophy system of classical number theory, so that yoga was recognized by Indian orthodox philosophy. Yoga also affected Indian philosophy and achieved the core position of Indian civilization.
Chapter 1: Meditation of Maharshi Patanjali Sutras
1.1 Now we will explain what yoga is.
1.2 Yoga is learning to control change in consciousness.
1.3 In this way, the perceiver can return to his true colors.
1.4 Otherwise, we would agree with those changes.
1.5 There are five types of transitions, painful and non-painful:
1.6 Knowledge, Fallacy, Fantasy, Sleep and Memory.
1.7 Perception, inference and evidence are all knowledge.
1.8 Wrong knowledge is fallacy and does not come from reality.
1.9 Literary knowledge without object is fantasy.
1.10 Loss of awakening leads to sleep.
1.11 What is left of the things that have been experienced is memory.
1.12 You can control all of these by exercising and not being attached to things.
1.13 Perseverance is exercise.
1.14 After a long period of time, a solid foundation can be laid.
1.15 Being unattached means having no desire for what you see and hear.
1.16 Since I know my true self, I have no desire for everything in the world. This is the highest.
1.17 The highest meditation is the consciousness of truth, discernment, and joy produced by the union of the true self and the universe.
1.18 Another type of meditation is achieved by abandoning the mundane and enduring exercises, which can dissolve those old habits.
1.19 Those without beings, completely without the body, are completely dissolved into the highest nature.
1.20 Others go through stages of faith, struggle, memory, meditation, wisdom, etc.
1.21 Some people are very willing and can soon enter meditation.
1.22 The best results are from mild to intense exercise.
1.23 This can also be achieved by obedience to God.
1.24 The Spirit of God is not affected by any nature or action.
1.25 He is the source of all knowledge.
1.26 He is a teacher of the ancients and even today.
1.27 His symbol is the Holy Voice (AUM).
1.28 This should be chanted often to achieve success.
1.29 From it reaches the consciousness of the universe and makes everything unobstructed.
1.30 Illness, laziness, hesitation, weakness, material desires, myths, inattention, and instability are all obstacles to distraction.
1.31 In addition, there are anxiety, tension, and uneven breathing.
1.32 Practicing yoga overcomes all this.
1.33 Peace of mind comes from friendship, love, joy and equality. Treating the happy and the suffering, the worthy, and the unworthy equally can make the consciousness pure.
1.34 Controlling breathing can overcome all this.
1.35 Subtle consciousness produces the highest conscious change and calms the mind.
1.36 This is due to the transcending, inner light.
1.37 Desire is also controlled by consciousness.
1.38 Also due to knowledge of dreams and sleep.
1.39 Also due to the exercise of meditation.
1.40 The union can be dominated from small to atomic to infinite.
1.41 The true perception is that the perceiver, the ability to perceive, and the perceiver are completely transparent.
1.42 The perceptual person can visualize objects through unblemished gems.
1.43 True knowledge is an intuitive object.
1.44 At the same time, the thinking has been transformed, and the memory has been purified, so that the object can be presented without thinking.
1.45 Subtle objects are presented without distinction.
1.46 The above is called seeded meditation.
1.47 But if indifferent meditation is reached, the true self is presented.
1.48 Wisdom is one with truth.
1.49 This is quite different from verbal reasoning.
1.50 This state of meditation will go beyond previous habits of thought.
1.51 Once this control is achieved, seedless meditation is achieved.
Chapter 2: Practice exercise of Maharshi Patanjali Sutras
2.1 Yoga is the discipline of the body, the study of scriptures, and obedience to God.
2.2 The purpose is to promote meditation and remove the root cause of obstacles.
2.3 Ignorance, egotism, obsession, aversion, and craving are the five obstacles to life.
2.4 Ignorance is the breeding ground for the remaining items, whether sleeping, mild, obstructive or intense.
2.5 Ignorance recognizes those who are not eternal, impure, painful, and not the true ego, as eternal, pure, pleasant and true ego.
2.6 Ego is the ability of the perceptual to identify with consciousness.
2.7 Obsession is the pursuit of desire.
2.8 Abandonment is living in pain.
2.9 Covetousness persists among those who are educated, and encourages itself.
2.10 While these obstacles are still at the subtle level, the opposite can be done to remove them.
2.11 If formed, you can meditate to eliminate it.
2.12 Those obstacles come from the past professions and act in visible and invisible areas.
2.13 Once rooted, it affects the condition of life, the length of life, and various experiences.
2.14 Due to the difference between doing good and doing evil, there are happy fruits and bitter fruits, respectively.
2.15 For the wise, everything is bitter. Because everything is changing, things become their opposite states.
2.16 The pain that has not yet come can be avoided.
2.17 The cause of suffering is the perception of the perceived by the perceived.
2.18 There are various things and consciousnesses in this world, which are to liberate us from this universe.
2.19 There are naturally four characteristics: specific, non-specific, differentiated, and indiscriminate.
2.20 The perceiver is only the consciousness itself. Although pure, he still sees things through his thoughts, and the ego identifies with him.
2.21 The nature of this perception is for the benefit of the perceiver.
2.22 Although these are ruined for the awakened, they remain for others.
2.23 When the perceiver meets the perceived, this world is created.
2.24 Ignorance is the cause.
2.25 If there is no ignorance, and there is no conscious person meeting the conscious person, the conscious person is free.
2.26 Elimination of ignorance requires constant discernment.
2.27 There are seven stages of wisdom. As knowledge grows, it is revealed one after another.
2.28 Through the exercise of yoga, the contamination will be removed by the light of knowledge, giving birth to discerning wisdom.
2.29 Vigilance, refinement, body-adjusting, breath-adjusting, mind-taking, concentration, meditation, samadhi are the eight branches of yoga.
2.30 Non-violence, no lying, no stealing, no indulgence, no greed.
2.31 This is an unbreakable vow, no matter when, where, under what circumstances or class.
2.32 Cleanliness, contentment, control of body and senses, learning classics, and obedience to God, are all advanced.
2.33 If there is an idea against yoga, use the opposite.
2.34 Destructive instincts are harmful thoughts. Whether it is to do it yourself, to induce students, or to identify with it. If greed, anger, and confusion become the motive, whether mild, moderate, or violent, it will bring endless suffering and ignorance, so the opposite must be developed.
2.35 As long as nonviolence is determined, hostility will be eliminated.
2.36 You can enjoy the rewards of your work without lying.
2.37 Wealth can be enjoyed without stealing.
2.38 Without indulgence, you can enjoy spiritual strength.
2.39 Without covetousness, knowledge of life can be obtained.
2.40 Cleanliness protects the body from being infected by contact with others.
2.41 Spiritual purity produces awakening and control of the senses.
2.42 Contentment produces the greatest happiness.
2.43 The perfection of the body and the senses destroys the uncleanness by the precept.
2.44 From continuous learning to unity with heaven.
2.45 Samadhi was created by the concentration of attention with God.
2.46 Posture must be firm and comfortable.
2.47 Uneasy control, meditation on infinity, can do it.
2.48 In this way, you will not be subject to dual sexual harassment.
2.49 Once you have mastered your posture, control your breathing.
2.50 Controlling the inhalation and exhalation is to adjust the breath. Outside, inside, and even still, all are adjusted according to time, place and number, breathing is thin and long.
2.51 The fourth is that breathing is neither outside nor inside.
2.52 Then the cover of light was removed.
2.53 This spirit is suitable for meditation.
2.54 If the mind is separated from consciousness and the consciousness is not mixed with the senses, the attention becomes one with itself.
2.55 Then the highest control over the senses is achieved.
Chapter 3: Meditation power of Maharshi Patanjali Sutras
3.1 Gaze is to place consciousness on one thing.
3.2 Entering is continuous perception.
3.3 Samadhi is the object of meditation only, and its consciousness disappears.
3.4 These three form meditation.
3.5 By mastering meditation, you get the light of wisdom.
3.6 This mastery goes through different stages.
3.7 These three are more intrinsic than previously discussed.
3.8 But even these three are outside the realm of seedlessness.
3.9 The state of control is the act of control in connection with the mind, which reduces those habits.
3.10 This circulation is stabilized by constant practice.
3.11 When the mind is placed on one thing, the interest in other things diminishes, and the attainment can be achieved.
3.12 In this state, the past and the rising mind become the same.
3.13 As a result, changes in the senses transcend all aspects of the principle and nature of things.
3.14 The nature of things is the past, present and future.
3.15 Evolution is caused by the continuous transformation of these three principles.
3.16 By meditating on these three transformations, knowledge of the past and future can be obtained.
3.17 Knowledge of ordinary words and meanings is confusing. Through meditation, you can learn all the knowledge of biological sounds.
3.18 If you meditate on past habits, you will learn the knowledge of past life.
3.19 If you meditate on the body of another person, you will know the thoughts of others.
3.20 Not knowing the content of thought, but its inner state.
3.21 By meditating on the shape of the body, the perception of the shape is blocked, the appearance of the eyes is separated, and the yogi’s body is not seen.
3.22 The consequences of actions are fast and slow, and the time of death is known from the internal control.
3.23 Meditation on different strengths, such as the strength of an elephant, produces the strength of an elephant.
3.24 Meditation on the inner light yields subtle and distant knowledge.
3.25 Meditate on the sun and gain knowledge of the world.
3.26 Meditation on the moon gives knowledge of the planet.
3.27 If you meditate on the starry sky, you will get the knowledge of starry sky movement.
3.28 When you meditate on the umbilical wheel, you gain knowledge of how your body works.
3.29 Meditating on the throat can cease hunger.
3.30 The meditation on the tubes in the chest can stabilize the body.
3.31 Meditate on the light on your head and you have super vision.
3.32 All knowledge is generated by the power of intuition.
3.33 If you meditate on the heart, you will gain knowledge about consciousness.
3.34 Joy comes from the difference between soul and wisdom. Through meditation on the true self, you will obtain the knowledge of the true self.
3.35 This results in transcendental hearing, vision, taste and smell.
3.36 These forces are obstacles to Samadhi.
3.37 When the reason for the restraint of attention is known, the yogi’s consciousness can enter another person’s body.
3.38 With this spiritual power under control, the yogi can walk on the water without being harmed by thorns. He can overcome death.
3.39 By controlling the energy of life, the body emits light.
3.40 By meditating on the ether and hearing, you can hear the voice of heaven.
3.41 By meditating on the relationship between ether and the body, the yogi’s body can become very light and able to fly in the air.
3.42 If you meditate on the mind, you can leave the body, and then ignorance will be removed.
3.43 By meditating on the subtlety and physical shape, state, and function of matter, one can control matter.
3.44 This makes the body extremely small, extremely large, and indestructible.
3.45 This body becomes beautiful and strong.
3.46 These organs can be controlled through meditation on the vitality of organs and their properties and functions.
3.47 In this way, the body can move as quickly as thought, control the transcendental senses and control the elements of nature.
3.48 Through meditation on the relationship between the true self and the energy of life, omnipotence and omniscientness can be achieved.
3.49 Destroying the seeds of bondage with no desire or need can free all bondage and achieve freedom.
3.50 The yogi should not be proud of these spiritual powers, because this will cause him obstacles and fall.
3.51 The movement of time, meditation before and after, can yield discerning knowledge.
3.52 This meditation can distinguish two very similar things, even if they have the same characteristics and status.
3.53 That intuitive knowledge knows everything and its nature.
3.54 When I become as pure as the energy of life, I reach perfection and freedom.
Chapter 4: Freedom of Maharshi Patanjali Sutras
4.12 The past and the future exist according to their forms and principles.
4.13 They are either hidden or obvious, each according to its characteristics.
4.14 Everything is one because this is the evolution of the whole.
4.15 The objects are the same, but if the consciousness is different, it will be different when seen.
4.16 Whether things are known or unknowable depends on whether they can be recognized by the mind.
4.17 Knowing or unknowing things depends on the state to which the mind is adjusted.
4.18 The adjustment of consciousness is always known to the conscious, because the eternal spirit is immutable.
4.19 Those minds cannot illuminate themselves because they are recognized as objects.
4.20 The perceiver and the object cannot be perceived at the same time.
4.21 Consciousness is known by another consciousness, which causes infinite retreat and leads to ideological confusion.
4.22 When the mind becomes a higher form of spirit, a higher consciousness is perceived.
4.23 In all perceptions, perception is colored by the perception.
4.24 The mind is regulated by desire to work for the Supreme One, because of its mixed nature.
4.25 For those discerning consciousnesses, their true self is separated from the mind.
4.26 Freedom can be achieved by the awareness of discrimination.
4.27 Sometimes thinking comes from past habits.
4.28 As mentioned above, removing these habits is removing obstacles.
4.29 Those who have achieved complete discrimination and completely abandoned all desires are called samadhis.
4.30 At this point all the pain has been eliminated, and various causal obstacles can be eliminated, and freedom can be gained.
4.31 Knowledge removes all obscuration, becomes infinite, and the role of senses becomes small.
4.32 After completing their goals, the evolution of the three states ceases.
4.33 In the end, the constant evolution has become an obvious transformation.
4.34 When the three states have completed their purpose, they have reached the realm of freedom and learned all their knowledge. This is absolute freedom.
Eight Branches Act of Maharshi Patanjali
The Eight-Branch Method is the eight stages of yoga practice required by the yoga ancestor Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra:
- Niyam (advance)
- Asan (posture)
- Pranayama (adjust interest
- Dhyan (concentration)
- Samadhi (Samadi)
The above mentioned science of yoga is with one seed and one sentence, and contains many treasures.
First, tell you what each step really means. Remember, Maharshi Patanjali, the ancestor of yoga, said: They are both steps and subjects, they are both. They are steps, because one step must be followed by another, which is a growing order. However, they are not just steps, they are the backbone of the entire yoga. They have an internal integration and an organic integration, that is, the subject. For example, my hands, feet, and heart do not operate separately. They are not separated. They are an organic unity. If the heart stops, the hand cannot move. Everything is connected. They are not like the rungs of a ladder, each rung of the ladder is separate; if one step breaks, the whole ladder will not break. So Maharshi Patanjali said that they are steps because they have a certain order of growth. But they are also the main limbs of the body, they are organic. You cannot lose any of them. You can lose steps, but not the subject. You can skip two steps at a time, or you can lose one step, but the main limbs cannot be discarded, they are not mechanical tissues, you cannot disassemble them, they build you. They belong to the whole, they are not separate.
The whole works through their harmony. Therefore, the eight branches of yoga are both steps, so that you have a concept, know which step follows the next step, and have a deep relationship with each other. The second step cannot jump to the first. The first step must be the first step, and the second step must be the second step. The eighth step must be the eighth step and cannot be moved to the fourth or the first step. Therefore, they are both a sequence and an organic combination.
Step 1: Hold the ring (yam) of Maharshi Patanjali
The English self-restraint is a bit different. Not only is there a gap, really, the original flavor of the entire yam is gone. This is because the English self-restraint feels like tolerant and restrained. These two words, suppression and suppression, have become three-character sutras and swear words after Freud. Persistence is not suppression.
When Maharshi Patanjali used the word yam, the meaning at the time was completely different. Words are constantly changing. Even now in India, samyam is derived from yam, which means control, suppression. Its true meaning is gone. Maharshi Patanjali does not mean self-restraint. What it means is: to direct one’s life, not to suppress energy, but to guide and direct these energy into the right direction. Because, you may continue to go in opposite directions, but you haven’t reached anywhere. It’s like a car: the driver drove a few miles north, then he changed his mind, and then he drove a few miles west, and then the idea changed again, so he kept changing. This man will die where he was. He can never reach anywhere, he can never have a sense of accomplishment. You can continue to go in many directions, but unless you have a direction, you just wander around in vain. Then nothing happened except that I felt increasingly frustrated.
First, precept means to give vitality a direction. Vitality is limited. If you continue to waste it on a stupid, directionless road, you can achieve nothing. The energy will be emptied quickly, and that emptiness is different from the “emptiness” of the Buddha. It was just a negative void, there was nothing left in it, just a hollow container. Wither before you die. However, this limited energy is a gift from existence, god, nature (or whatever you like to call it ).
These limited energies can be used as a door to the infinite. If you move in the right direction, if you are a conscious and conscious action that gathers all your energy towards the same direction, if you do not follow the blind crowd but become a unique individual. This is what yam means.
Usually you are crowd-oriented, and there is a lot of noise in you. One said, “Go this way.” The other said, “That’s no use. Go here.” If you are not a unique individual, a unified life, you will miss the point no matter where you go. No matter where you are, you can’t feel “home”. You always go everywhere, but you never arrive anywhere. You will go crazy, and a life without precepts will be chaotic.
It is not surprising that there are more lunatics in the West than in the East. In the East, people still intentionally or unintentionally follow the precepts in their lives. In the West, the thought of self-restraint makes people feel like slaves, and opposing self-control seems to be free and independent. But unless you are a unique individual, you cannot obtain true freedom. Your freedom will be a scam, nothing but self-destruction. You will destroy yourself, destroy your potential and energy. One day, you will feel the hard work of your whole life. In the end, you will get nothing and no growth.
The meaning of precepts, the meaning of the first step-to give life a direction, so that oneself is more at the center. How can you be more central? Once your life has a direction, there will immediately be a “center” starting from within you. Direction creates a sense of center, and the center gives direction. The two are mutually completed. Unless you are precepted, it is impossible to reach the second step. That is why Maharshi Patanjali calls them steps.
Step 2: Advancement (niyam) of Maharshi Patanjali
Discipline, self-cultivation and regular life, not noisy life. Correct the rules, but the same sounds like you are a slave. All the beautiful writings of the Maharshi Patanjali era have evolved to become ugly now. But let me tell you, unless you have rules and discipline in your life, you will become a slave to biological instincts. You may think that this is called freedom, you are just slaves under the drifting and rootless thoughts, that is not freedom. On the surface, you may seem to be free. In fact, there are many unseen masters in you who constantly control and control you.
A person can only become his master someday when he lives in a life of cultivation. To be a master, it’s just that the life of the rule is far from perfect. Only when all eight steps are fulfilled, the real master will appear. Become Jina-the winner. Become a Buddha, an awakened person, Christ, the Savior. Instantly, you become the savior of others. It is not that you are trying to save them, but that you are “in” itself, the influence of salvation. This is the second step: niyam – adherence and compliance.
Step 3: Posture (asan), by Maharshi Patanjali
Each step starts with the completion of the previous step. When you have regular and self-cultivation in your life, only then can you reach the asan-asana. Try asanas occasionally, just sit quietly. You can’t just sit quietly-the body will do everything to resist you. You instantly feel pain in your body. My feet are numb. Several parts of my body started to become restless and restless. You never realized before, why are there so many problems just sitting quietly? It feels like thousands of ants are crawling on you. Look closely but it is not an ant, it is the body that lie to you. Because, the body is not ready to be trained. The body is spoiled, it doesn’t want to listen to you; it is already a master, and you always listen to it. Even just sitting quietly for a few minutes is almost impossible.
If you want people to just sit quietly, it’s really like hell to them. If I said to someone like this, he would ask: “Just sit quietly and do nothing?” As if I couldn’t get rid of “doing” something. He would say, “At least, give me a spell so that I can chant it inside.” What he needs to do. Just sitting quietly seemed difficult. Sitting quietly and doing nothing is the most beautiful thing a person can do.
Asan is a relaxed position. Very relaxed and stable in the posture. In this position, there is no need to move the body at all. In that moment, in an instant, you transcend your body.
When the body says, “Look, a lot of ants are crawling on you.” Or, suddenly you have a very strong urge to scratch it. That’s the body trying to pull you down. It is telling you: “Don’t go too far, come back quickly, where are you going?” Consciousness is moving up and away from the physical body, so the body will start to rebel. This has never been the case before, so the body creates some problems that make you have to come back.
The body wants your attention: “Watch me!” So, he will cause pain, itching, and make you want to scratch. Suddenly, the body is no longer as before, it becomes rebellious. This is the trick of the body. You are called back “Don’t go too far, do something, stay here.” Stay in the body, on this land. You are heading towards the sky, and your body is worried and scared.
Yoga postures can only be done when one’s life has self-control and cultivation. In this way, you can sit comfortably. This is because the body knows that you are a cultivated person.
When you want to sit, you can sit and nothing will disturb you. The body will continue to say something, no, then slowly it will stop. Because no one is listening. That is not depression, you are not depression of the body. Instead, the body is trying to suppress you. It is not depression, you are not asking the body to do anything, you are just relaxing and resting.
However, the body doesn’t know anything to open and relax, because you never let it relax. You are always restless. The word asan means relaxation, in deep relaxation. If you do, many things will become possible for you.
Step 4: pranayam, by Maharshi Patanjali
Asan – After the position, the next step is pranayam – adjust the breath. Observe for a few days and make notes. What is the rhythm of your breathing when you are angry? Record it: Exhale longer or inhale longer? Or the same? Or do you inhale deeply and exhale deeply? Or is the exhalation shallow and the inhalation prolonged? Just looking at the ratio between inspiration and expiration. When the sexual energy rises, observe and record it.
Sometimes at night, when sitting quietly looking up at the sky, everything around you is so quiet: record your breathing. When full of compassion, look at it and record it. When in a fight, look at it and record it. Make a chart of your breathing rhythm and you will know better. Breathing cannot be taught. You have to explore it yourself, because everyone’s breathing rhythm is different.
The difference between each person’s breathing and breathing rhythm is as unique as fingerprints. Breathing is an individual unique phenomenon, which is why I never teach it. You have to explore your own rhythm. Your rhythm may be different from others, and the breath that suits you may be harmful to others. You have to find out your own rhythm. That is not difficult. No need to ask any experts. It only takes a month to record your mood, condition, and chart it. Then you will know which rhythm is the most relaxed, stable and let down, and which rhythm is the quietest, the calmest, the calmest for a moment, you suddenly have a sense of joy, blessing, full of unknown. So a moment that overflows so that you can share it with the world, but never run out.
Feel and watch that moment, when you feel united with the whole universe and only when you feel split and missing. When you feel one with trees and birds, one with rivers and rocks, and one with oceans, sand and rocks viewing, you will find that breathing has many rhythms and a wide range, from the most violent, ugly, hell-like pain to heaven-like peace.
After you find your own rhythm, practice it and make it part of your life. Gradually, it will enter the subconscious, and you will only breathe in this rhythm. With this rhythm, your life will become like a “yoga walker”: there is no anger, no too strong sexual desire, and it will not be full of hostility or hatred. There will be a moment. Suddenly, there is a “qualitative transformation” in you.
Maharshi Patanjali’s Pranayam-Breathing is one of the greatest discoveries ever made in human consciousness. Compared to breath control, human landing on the moon seems trivial. It may seem exciting, but it’s really nothing great. Even if you land on the moon, what will you do there? Not yet doing something as stupid and meaningless as here. Breathing is an “inner journey.” It is the fourth of eight steps. Breath control represents half of the journey. Once a person learns to adjust his breath, it is not taught by the teacher, because it is untrue. I don’t agree with that, but through self-discovery and awareness, learning the breathing rhythm of self nature, he has already achieved half of his goal . Breathing is one of the most significant discoveries.
Step 5: Pratyahar, by Maharshi Patanjali
Pranayam: After adjusting the breath, the next is pratyahar i.e. mind-taking. Pratyahar means return, return to inner, return to home.
According o Maharshi Patanjali, Pratyaha is only possible after entering the breath, because the breath makes you regular, you already know the whole range of breathing: you know what is the breathing rhythm closest to home, and what breathing rhythm is the most Away from you.
When you are in violence, sexuality, anger, jealousy or possession, you will find that you are far away from yourself. And when you are in an atmosphere of love, compassion, prayer, gratitude, you will find yourself very close to the way home.
After adjusting the breath, it is possible to return to the heart. When you know the path and direction, you know how to go home.
Step 6: Dharana, by Maharshi Patanjali
When you start to focus, return, and approach the innermost core, you are right in front of your nature. Pratyahar is mindful and leads you closer to this door. Pranayam breathes and is a bridge from the outside to the inside. Pratyahar takes you to this door with distraction, and then it is possible to reach dharana gazing. At this time, you have the ability to bring your thoughts to a single object. First, you give the body a direction indicator and give life energy the right direction; now, you direct your consciousness to be an indicator. Now, consciousness can’t be allowed to wander around, it must be taken to its destination.
The destination is dharana meditation: focus your consciousness on one point. When consciousness is focused on one point, the thoughts stop, because only when the consciousness is constantly swaggering around, can thoughts come into being. If it means jumping, jumping, jumping up and down like a monkey, then a lot of thoughts will appear, and your mind will be full of thoughts like the market. However, after pranayam breath control, pratiahar distraction, you may become able to focus on one point. If you can focus on one point, then you can reach the state of dhyana.
In mindfulness, you bring your thoughts to a point. In the set state, you also let go of that. So, you become totally centered, there is nowhere to go. Because, wherever you want to go, you go out. Even this single thought focused on one point is outside of you. It is an object, you are not alone. There are observers: the object of the mind and you. The object must be let go to reach the final setting.
All temples and churches can only guide you to the stage of meditation. They can’t lead you beyond this, because all temples and churches have an object in their hearts-God or the image of God, is the object they focus on. All temple churches can only take you to the state of meditation. That is why churches and idols disappear when religion moves to a higher stage. They must disappear, the temple must be completely clear, only you stay there, no one else, no object: the stark subject.
Step 7: Dhyan, by Maharshi Patanjali
Dhyan means pure subject, not staring at something. If you stare at something then it becomes concentration. Attentiveness and concentration mean that there is something to keep you focused.
Entering Dhyan means meditation: nothing is there, everything is let go, all you have to do is stay in a state of extreme awareness, the object has been lost, and the subject has not yet fallen asleep. It is deeply in the set, without any object – centered, but still an “I” feeling lingers. The object has fallen off, but the subject is still there. You still feel yourself. This is not “ego”. In Sanskrit, “I” has two words: ahankar and asmita.
Ahankar means “I am” and asmita means “Yes”. It’s just “yes”-“self” no longer exists, but its shadow is still there. You always feel yourself. This is not an idea; if this is the concept of “I am”, then it is “self”. In the in-depth setting, the “self” has completely disappeared.
However, there is a shadow-like amness or “I am” still, just a feeling, just wandering around you. In the set meditation, it was as if it was early in the morning, the sun had not yet risen, and it was foggy: asmita “yes” was still there. You still go back whenever you can. A slight interruption-when someone is talking and you hear it, the meditation state disappears; you return to the state of concentration and concentration.
If you not only listen but also start to think, then, even the intent of concentration is gone; you return to the state of pratyahar’s distraction and return.
If you not only think, but even agree with your thoughts, then the state of distraction and return is gone. You have fallen into the state of Pranayam’s breath adjustment.
When your thoughts take up too much of your space and you lose your rhythm of breathing, the state of pacification disappears: you fall back to the state of asan.
If your thoughts and breathing are disturbed, your body will start to shake and your posture will disappear. They are all related. A person may fall from meditation. Meditation is the most dangerous point in the world. Because, that’s what you might fall down a bit. Moreover, it might fall miserably.
There is a word in India, yogabhrasta: someone who gets knocked out from yoga. This word is really strange. It is both stigmatizing and derogatory. When you say that someone is a yogi yogi, you express a high opinion of someone.
When you say that someone is a yogabhrasta, it is a condemnation: falling from yoga. This man once reached a state of meditation and calmness in one of his past lives, and then fell down. In the state of meditation, there is still the possibility to return to this mother-in-law world, because asmita is “yes”. The seeds are still alive. At any time, it is possible to sprout again; therefore, the journey is not over.
Step 8: Samadhi, by Maharshi Patanjali
When asmita “yes” also disappears, when you no longer know who you are, there is no longer “I am” or “Yes” reflected on you, then the state of samadhi, samadhi superconsciousness, ecstasy appears .
Samadhi is beyond everything, and you will never return. The state of Samadhi is a point of no reincarnation. No one will fall from there. A person in the state of Samadhi is to become divine. We say that the Buddha is God and Mahavira is God. The same also holds good for Maharshi Patanjali.
A person who has entered Samadhi no longer belongs to this world. He has become an “outsider” in this world. He may still be here, but his home is somewhere else. He may walk on this earth, but no longer walk on this earth. It is said that he lives in this world, but this world does not live in his heart. These are the eight steps of yoga together with the eight branches. The limbs are because they are so interconnected and so organically connected. The steps are because you have to come step by step. You can’t insert from the middle. You have to start with the first step, yam persistence.
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