What is Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery?
Oral and maxillofacial surgery is around for quiet sometime and is getting popular day by day. Sometimes, a doubt comes in the minds of experts even though OMFS has its base on surgical treatment, then why is it a professional in stomatology and not a general surgery?
It is ideal to say that oral and maxillofacial surgery has dual attributes. On the one hand, in order to prevent oral and maxillofacial diseases, complete division of oral and maxillofacial surgery and oral science, orthodontics, prosthodontics and other surrounding disciplines is not necessary. After all, the well-known “extraction” is our oral and maxillofacial surgery due to its own surgical attributes. It has common characteristics and associations with general surgery, plastic surgery and internal and pediatric sciences. Therefore, it is considerable that oral and maxillofacial surgery is an important part of stomatology and an important branch of clinical medicine. After listening to these, it comes in mind that the image of “oral and maxillofacial surgery” is even taller!
Definition of Oral and maxillofacial Surgery
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery is a surgical treatment of oral organs (tooth, alveolar bone, lip, cheek, tongue, sputum) , pharynx, etc., facial soft tissue, maxillofacial bones (maxilla, mandible, tibia, etc.), temporomandibular joint, parotid gland, and the prevention and treatment of certain diseases pertaining to the neck are the main content of the subject.”
Meaning of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Oral and maxillofacial surgery is a surgical treatment of oral organs (tooth, alveolar bone, lips, cheeks, tongue, ankle, pharynx, etc.), facial soft tissue, and maxillofacial bones. The main content of the prevention and treatment of certain diseases pertaining to the maxilla, mandible, tibia, the temporomandibular joint, the parotid gland and the neck.
Like other medical specialties, oral and maxillofacial surgery is a medical sub-division that has made gradual development and form in practice. It is precisely because of the formation and participation of oral and maxillofacial surgery that the dental medicine is being able to make development into stomatology.
Surgical Expertise is developing to such an extent that due to the need of knowledge about human body and technical skills the surgeons need to get specialization in certain areas. Usually, this is in the field of human body, or sometimes in a specific technique or category of patients. Interestingly, there are 9 surgical features and this domain also integrates oral and maxillofacial surgery also in itself.
Secondly, the feature of OMFS ( oral and maxillofacial surgery ) is unique that creates the need of a dual qualification in medicine and dental. After this there is a comprehensive generic and specialist surgical training. Thirdly, this is a recognizable international specialty which is defined under medical instructions in Europe. Similar is the situation in the United States and Canada.
Also, most surgeons obtain a degree of dentistry before undergoing training in medicine, but getting medical qualifications and then making a career in OMFS has become too frequent. Notably, most surgeons obtain a degree in dentistry before undergoing training in medicine. But comparatively obtaining medical qualifications and then making a career in OMFS has become much more usual.
Table of Content
1. Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
2. Where do oral and maxillofacial surgeons work?
3. The theoretical subspecialties of Oral and Maxillofacial surgery
4. Latest Advancements Regarding Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeries Prime Surgical Operations
5. Prime Surgical Operations
6. Different Roles of Oral and Maxilofacial Surgeon
7. How Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery got its Name
8. OMFS Overview
9. History and International Development
Where do oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons work?
Often drug and dental care expertise is seen as a bridge between oral and maxillofacial surgery. This bridge is a surgical treatment facility for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases affecting face, jaw, mouth and neck.
The scope of the specialty is comprehensive and involves diagnosis and supervision of facial disproportion, facial pain, facial injuries, salivary gland diseases, head or neck cancers, impacted teeth, cysts and tumors of jaws as well. This is because various obstacles affect the oral mucosa. These are like mouth ulcers and infections which conventionally even ENT surgeons may treat.
The theoretical Sub-specialties of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Doctors or qualified dentists may choose to specialize or get training in one or more of these specialized areas of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgeries:
Oral and Maxillofacial Areas
- Dental surgery (entailing implants)
- Temporomandibular joints
- Salivary glands
- Facial skin lesions
Surgical Therapy of neck and head cancers
Removal of tumors and subsequent reconstruction, including microvascular free tissue transfers.
Surgery for Craniofacial Facial Deformity
Improvement in predominantly congenital or acquired facial deformities which improves the oro-facial function. However, often to remove facial deformity and restore the quality of life as well.
Prognostic and management of medical situation presenting in and around the cervico-facial structures.
The treatment of soft and rigid tissue injuries in the face of the craniofacial.
Significantly, surgery to increase facial aesthetics and improve the quality of life.
Latest Advancements Regarding Maxillofacial Surgeries
In relation to OMFS, such Navigation systems divising is going on which are connectable to complex images and permit the surgeon to see a “head up display” in operation theatre. In these, formation and manipulation of navigation images may take place by a computer, to originate precise models to devise surgery plan.
Also, 3D radiographic anatomically displays Computed Tomography (CT scans) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI scans). This enables surgeons to view actual and extensive 3-dimensional pictures of the inside of patients’ head and neck anatomy and pathology.
Prime Surgical Operations
Surgeons take out a sequence of oral and maxillofacial surgical operations on an outpatient basis under local anesthesia or conscious sedation. Additionally, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery includes pre-implant surgeries, placement of dental/facial implants, extraction of troublesome teeth, intra-oral and facial soft tissue methods. However, some major operations as those for salivary gland diseases, facial deformity, cancer, trauma, etc. are carried out on admission or hospitalization basis. This performance needs to be under general anaesthesia only-
- Orthognathic surgery to reform facial disproportion.
- Facial injuries, management of complex craniofacial fracture, and soft tissue damage of the mouth, face, and neck.
- Reconstructive surgery with microvascular free tissue transfer.
- Head and neck cancer, access to tumours among in the depths of the complex craniofacial anatomy, and ablation of tumours, together with neck dissections
- Pre-implant surgery, which includes related bone grafting technique in the form of maintaining facial or dental prostheses and as part of the oro-facial reconstruction
- Extraction of affected teeth and complex buried dental roots.
- Extraction of cysts and tumours occurring in jaws.
- Primary and secondary surgery for cleft lip and palate, and other inborn facial malformation.
- Management of benign and lethiferous lesions of salivary glands.
- Elimination of complex facial skin tumours and reconstruction.
- Cosmetic surgery accompanying face lifts, eyelid and brow surgery, and rhinoplasties.
- Surgery for temporomandibular joint dysfunction.
Different Roles of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
Interestingly, oral and maxillofacial surgeons often work with different types of experts in other areas owing to the nature of their activities under oral and maxillofacial surgery, such as:
- Clinical Oncologist
- Plastic Surgeon
- Restaurant Dentist
- ENT Surgeon
How was Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery named?
Throughout the history of dental medicine, it is inseparable from the development of surgery. The publishing of medical records and practice of dental medicine is going on since the beginning of BC. However, the formal establishment and rise of dentistry took place in the Western countries from the 17th to the 18th centuries. France’s Pierre Fauchard (1678 ~ 1761) published a monograph on dental surgery and perfected the clinical work of dentistry. He is known as the father of modern dentistry because of his contribution. At the time, dentistry was in the field of surgery, known as the dental surgery section. Dentists were also called dental surgeons under the title of a dental surgeon.
So far, the degree of dentistry still maintains the title of doctor of dental surgery (D.D.S). According to research, in the founding of ancient dentistry. At the time, most of them had a doctoral degree (doctor of medicine, M.D) degree.
According to some books, the term “oral surgery” is named after American James Edmund Garretson (1828 – 1895), Garretson himself was a surgeon when he was at a dental school.
Teaching oral surgery based on extraction. In the years to come, the term “oral surgery” was used not only for the naming of hospital departments, but also for various textbooks and reference books.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the concept of maxillofacial surgery appeared. However, at what time, in which country, which scholar officially proposed or named “oral and maxillofacial surgery”, further research is needed.
In Europe, the oral and maxillofacial surgery of the former Soviet Union made relative development. This needs special thanks to the World War II in the 1940s. Due to the further development of the treatment of maxillofacial injuries, the name of the oral and maxillofacial surgery is now widely used and recognized in the former Soviet Union in the late 1940s. Stomatology in China got official confirmation when the department was adjusted in 1952. Therefore, it was only after 1952 that the formal establishment and name of oral surgery or oral and maxillofacial surgery was established.
In 1956, the Ministry of Health promulgated a syllabus for oral medicine education, and renamed “Oral Surgery” as “Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery”. For the first time, official confirmation of the name of “Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery” found its place in the form of an official document. To this end, in 1959, the first official medical college textbook published by Xia Liangcai in China was the name of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. American W. Harry Archer and Gastav O. Kruger’s original “Oral Surgery” was renamed “Oral Oral Surgery” after the mid-1970s. At present, the name “oral and maxillofacial surgery” is getting wide acceptance by most countries and its name is also used by its academic or academic organizations.
OMFS Development Overview
Like medical development, ancient stomatology is often finds assocaiation with religion, God, and power. For example, in the 2nd century BC, there were giants depicting the extraction of teeth in the semi-reliefs of ancient India. So far, in some foreign dental schools, the god of toothache was seen. The ancient people were punished after pulling their teeth and pulling the wrong teeth.
In the 4th century BC, there were records about the treatment of jaw fracture, dislocation and tooth extraction in the writings of the famous Greek medical scientist Hippocartes. Later, the Persian Rages (850-923 AD) used citrate as a topical drug to assist in tooth extraction.
In the 11th century, the famous Arab scientist Abulcasis (1050-1122) contributed the most to oral surgery. In his book, he described and designed a complete set of dental surgical instruments. He also advocated the use of copper sulfate powder for wound healing. It is is common idea that he has was also involved in cleft lip surgery. In the years to come, Amatus Lusitanus (1554), J. F. Dieffenbach (1794-1847), and TNman W. Surgeons such as Broghy (1848 – 1928) have made historic contributions to cleft lip and palate repair.
International Research and development in OMFS
In the field of oral and maxillofacial tissue engineering research, the international research is still in its infancy. The repair of a large number of oral and maxillofacial bone defects that congenital malformations cause, trauma, tumors, inflammation, etc. is an urgent problem to be solved in oral clinical medicine in the world. They not only affect the appearance of patients but also cause dysfunctions such as speech, swallowing and breathing, affecting the health and life of patients. This is even affecting life in severe cases.
At present, clinical application of autologous bone tissue repair can achieve good results. But in the mode of wound repair trauma, the source of autologous tissue has limitation and new defects emerge. The application of tissue engineering technology to repair the repair of oral and maxillofacial bone defects is currently a blank in the world. It is of great significance to open up new fields of MSCs-based cell therapy and tissue engineering in oral and maxillofacial applications.
The main performance of the international level of the discipline
Prevention and Treatment of oral and maxillofacial tumors.
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