What is Modern Medicine? How is Modern Medicine developed?
Let us understand how modern medicine development takes place, and why clinical control trials are the key to confirming the efficacy of drugs or modern medicine.
Modern Medicine Definition
The definition of modern medicine can be “A medical system where doctors and other healthcare or paramedical professionals as pharmacists, and therapists, nurses, diagnosis experts, etc. treat symptoms and diseases using drugs, radiation or surgery. This we also know as biomedicine, allopathic medicine, mainstream medicine orthodox medicine or conventional medicine.”
Modern Medicine Meaning
We often hear people claiming that they never go to the hospital, but few people dare to say that they never take medicine. A person, from birth to death, is inevitably more or less light or heavy. If you are sick, you will inevitably have to deal with drugs. Modern medicine provides a variety of very effective drugs for many diseases, but there are also many diseases without specific drugs or even no drugs. Therefore, people still need to constantly research and develop new drugs. Every moment, the advertisements on TV and newspapers are spreading the gospel of some magical new drugs to some incurable diseases, so that patients and their relatives and friends can’t move.
However, this is often just a sweet talk of defrauding money. Keep your wallet, don’t feel temptation by fake drug advertisements, avoid losing money and getting disappointment. It is necessary to understand the common sense of new drug development.
Who is Modern Medicine Father?
Hippocrates, who lived about 2400 years ago, is known as the father of modern medicine. He described many diseases and their treatment in a scientific manner in his more than 70 books after making meticulous observations.
What is Modern Medicine History?
In the past, it was often found that a drug was a chance, and now more and more people are consciously designing and developing new drugs for certain diseases. The development of modern medicine is a large army battle, and it requires the cooperation of experts from many different fields. It requires physiologists, biochemists, and molecular biologists to study physiology, pathology, and design drugs at the cellular and molecular levels, organic chemists to synthesize drugs, toxicologists to study drug toxicology, and pharmacologists to study drug pharmacology. Simulation and analysis by computer experts, doctors conduct clinical trials and observe the effects of drugs, statisticians statistical treatment results and so on.
Modern Medicine Tests
The first step in the development of new drugs begins with the study of the physiological functions of the human body. Physiologists study various physiological functions and changes of the human body under normal conditions. Biochemists study chemical changes in life processes, and molecular biologists study the functions and interactions of various molecules involved in life processes. In this way, we can understand how our body works under normal conditions from molecules, cells, organs to different levels of the human body, and the lesions are due to which ones are abnormal. The occurrence of a disease is a series of very complicated processes.
If we can crack this process at the cellular and molecular level, and specifically track out which step is the problem, we can provide ideas for new drug design. If you want to add a certain kind of target to this abnormal step How do compounds with special structures or properties change the physiological activities of molecules and cells, and will they correct the lesions and achieve the purpose of treatment?
Modern Medicine Research
Sometimes researchers can quickly discover this particular compound, which is very fortunate. More often, researchers need to screen thousands of compounds to find the few that are effective. Now, researchers can use computer simulation targets to design a chemical structure for it, telling chemists what compounds and structures should be synthesized to narrow the scope of the screening.
Testing of pharmaceutical compounds was initially performed in vitro and in vitro cultured cells. In the in vitro experiment, the drug acts directly on the target, which is easy to produce obvious effects, but it is not necessarily effective for the human body. The body may not absorb the drug. If body can absorb it, it may not work, and it may also cause adverse reactions to the human body. These observations are not there in in-vitro experiments. However, due to humane considerations, we cannot just experiment with people directly. Therefore, in the next phase, researchers need to do animal experiments.
Modern Medicine Trials
Commonly used experimental animals are mice, rats, rabbits, cats, dogs, monkeys, and the like. Two or more animals are required for animal testing because different types of animals may react differently to drugs. First of all, we need to know what kind of effect the drug will have on the body, test the effect of the drug compound on the animal, what kind of toxic side effects, and how much the drug is safe.
Second, we also need to know how the body reacts to the drug, for example:
- How much of the drug absorption takes place into the blood
- How it metabolizes, decomposes in the body
- Whether its metabolites are toxic
- Drugs and their metabolism.
- How fast the product excretion takes place, and so on.
If the active ingredient of a drug does not enter the blood, or enters the blood, but metabolizes, degrades, and excretes too quickly, then it is useless. At this time, people should consider whether to change the chemical structure of the drug or add other chemicals. Ingredients to help the drug be absorbed or slow down its metabolism, degradation, and excretion rate. Sometimes, people will find that the metabolite of a drug is even more effective than the drug itself.
Modern Medicine Clinical Trials
However, the physiology of animals and humans is still different after all. The drugs that are effective against animals and have little side effects are not necessarily true to the human body. Only modern medicine clinical trial can ultimately determine whether a drug is effective and toxic. Once a drug passes the in vitro test and animal test, it seems that there is hope for a new drug, you can apply to the drug regulatory department for clinical trials. Modern Medicine clinical trials are generally divisible into three distinct phases, referred to as Phase I, II, and III clinical trials.
Phase I clinical trials are short-term and small-scale. The test subjects are usually 20-100 people, and healthy volunteers or patients can. Its main purpose is to observe whether the new drug will have acute toxic side effects, test the appropriate safe dose, and initially study the body’s absorption, metabolism and excretion of the drug. The time lasts for several months. If there are no serious problems, such as unacceptable side effects, you can enter the II clinical trial. About 70% of the drugs can successfully pass this phase of the trial; the phase II clinical trial is medium-term.
Purpose of Clinical Trials
The test subjects are patients, usually 100-300 people. The main purpose is to observe whether the new drug has curative effect and to further observe the short-term safety. The time lasts for months to two years. Only about 33% of new drugs can successfully pass this phase of the trial. Phase III clinical trials are long-term large-scale. The test subjects are patients, usually 1000-3000 people. The purpose is to confirm the efficacy and safety of the new drug and determine the dose to administer. The time lasts for 1-4 years. About 25%-30% of new drugs can pass this stage of testing.
Modern Medicine and Pharmaceuticals
After completing the Phase III clinical trial, the pharmaceutical company can submit a listing application to the drug regulatory department. Then the drug regulatory department will organize an expert appraisal. In the United States, the last new drug that the Food and Drug Administration approved is only 20% of the total number of new drugs originally applied for clinical trials.
Occasionally, during a clinical trial, a drug found to be effective in treating malignant diseases and will have to discontinue in clinical trials and becomes usable directly to treat patients. For example, the first clinical trial of AZT, a new drug for the treatment of AIDS, was found to significantly increase patient survival after only 106 days. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) immediately suspended the clinical trial and approved it. It was allowed for its use to treat more than 4,000 AIDS patients before it went on the market.
After the new drug is approved for marketing, it is still necessary to further observe the efficacy and safety of the drug in a wide range of long-term clinical applications, and comparable with other existing drugs, called phase IV clinical.
As children, pregnant women, and the elderly are often excluded from clinical trials, it is particularly important to observe the safety, efficacy, and dosage range of the drug for these groups and certain patient populations after the new drug is marketed. If data of long-term use show to have unanticipated serious side effects, immediate recall of the drug may take place from the market.
Modern Medicine PPT
Modern Medicine Course and Modern Medicine Practices
Medicine is pragmatic science of establishment of diagnosis, prognosis, prevention and treatment of diseases. Medicine entails several health practices those emerged for the maintenance of health with the procedure of treatment and prevention of diseases to the cure.
Contemporary medicine applies bio medical research, genetics, biomedical sciences, medical technology, etc. in order to diagnose, treat and prevent diseases along with injuries, ideally via surgery and pharma. And this is also through therapies as diverse as biologics, medical devices, ionizing radiation, psychotherapy along with many more. Modern medicine makes use of most of these. In formal sector high end courses like MD are most popular.
Is Modern Medicine Curse or Boon?
Developing new drugs is a very time consuming and expensive process. In the United States, a new drug, from the start of development to approval, takes an average of 8.5 years and costs hundreds of millions of dollars. Only 5 out of every 5,000 drug candidates can enter clinical trials, and only one can get approval for marketing. Understanding this, we can decide whether modern medicine is curse or boon.
Modern Medicine vs Ayurveda
We generally know Modern Medicine to treat symptoms while body immunity cures. Ayurvedic philosophy is natural way of treatment which may aid in curing the ailment. Ayurvedic medication falls in naturopathy segment with least known side effects while contrary is claim exists in modern medicine. Thus, this is the difference between Modern Medicine vs Alternate Medicine or Ayurveda.
What are Modern Medicine Advantages or Importance of Modern medicine?
We should know the modern medicine benefits as it is being so widely used:
- It does not create dependency treatment options
- Looks at overall body health
- It provides more flexibility in treatment plans
- Improves way of life
- It improves life quality
- It is easily available
- Is most reliable in the world as mass behaviour shows
- It is most scientific, at least as known to be
- It is approval takes place only after hard trials
Modern Medicine Disadvantages or Dangers of Modern Medicine
- It is not much reliable to treat the cause to lead to complete cure
- It is expensive
- Has adverse side effects
- It requires highly qualified expert for prescription
- It may have conflict with other form of therapies
Modern Medicine vs Traditional Medicine
It is common notion that Modern Medicine extends our lifespan and we can now treat disease and illness to cure them with more comfort and confidence. It is a common notion that medicine may not cure us at all times, but it can subside the effectiveness of our symptoms and improve our bodily condition. We know Traditional Medicine as traditional for the only reason of its saying that represents that it is obsolete or old fashioned, against modernity.
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