Medical Department Microbiology Subject Course and Training
One of the branches of biology in microbiology. It is to study the morphological structure, growth and reproduction of various micro-organisms (bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, viruses, Rickettsia, mycoplasma, chlamydia, spirochete protozoa and single-cell algae) at the molecular, cellular or population level. It includes Physiological metabolism, genetic variation, ecological distribution and taxonomic evolution and other basic laws of life activities, and apply it to science in the fields of industrial fermentation, medical hygiene and bioengineering.
Subject Name: Microbiology
Medical name: Microbiology
Attributes: One of the branches of biology
Research object: All kinds of tiny or minute creatures
Table of Content
2 Training objectives
3 Course Introduction
4 Development stage
▪ Experience stage
▪ Morphological stage
▪ Physiological stage
▪ Biochemistry stage
▪ Molecular biology stage
5 Subject branches
Microbiology (microbiology) One of the branches of biology. It is a science that studies the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, classification and ecology of various microscopic organisms (bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, viruses, rickettsia, mycoplasma, chlamydia, spirochete protozoa and single-cell algae).
Microbiology is an important basic course or professional basic course that must be opened for biology majors in colleges and universities. It is also the theoretical and technical foundation of modern high-tech biotechnology. Genetic engineering, cell engineering, enzyme engineering and fermentation engineering are formed and developed on the basis of microbiology principles and technologies.
“Microbiology” is also one of the important cornerstones for the development of biological majors and the modernization of agriculture and forestry in higher agricultural and forestry universities. With the widespread application of biotechnology, microbiology will have a huge impact on the production activities and lives of modern and future humans.
What are the Training objectives of Microbiology Discipline?
This master’s degree trains all-round development of moral, intellectual, physical and aesthetic aspects, and is oriented to the cause of socialist modernization. It is qualified for teaching and scientific research in colleges and scientific research institutions, or is an excellent young microbiologist who further pursues a doctorate. To this end, graduate students must:
Lay a solid foundation during the school.
Master the frontiers and dynamics of microbiology research
Cultivate the ability and quality to independently engage in scientific research, teaching work or related technical work.
Specific requirements are as follows:
1. Adhere to the four basic principles and support the party’s line, principles and policies. Caring about major national issues, actively requesting progress in politics, earnestly studying Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, and the important thinking of the “Three Represents” have a high level of political theory and ability to think. Has good moral quality, is decent, and sincerely get along with classmates, respect teachers and discipline.
2. Have solid professional basic skills, master the basic theory, systematic professional knowledge and proficient experimental operation skills necessary in the field of microbiology, understand the frontiers and dynamics of this discipline, have an understanding of similar disciplines. Master a foreign language, can Proficiency in reading and accurately understanding foreign-related materials related to the major, and a certain ability to listen, speak and write in foreign languages.
Have the ability to independently engage in scientific research, teaching work or take up related professional technical work in related majors. Have solidarity, cooperation and innovation spirit.
3. Have good comprehensive quality, healthy psychology and physique.
What is the Research direction of Microbiology Medical Subject?
According to social needs and discipline characteristics, the main research direction of pathogenic bacteria molecular biology.
1. Basic Microbiology
It mainly introduces the structural characteristics, separation and culture characteristics of microorganisms.
The pathogenicity of microorganisms.
The fermentation dynamics of food microorganisms.
Highlights the latest research progress and research results of microorganisms.
2. Advances in animal pathogen microbiology
It mainly introduces the genomics and proteomics of important human and animal pathogenic microorganisms, the virulence factors of microorganisms, the metabolism and selection mechanism of food microorganisms, and focuses on the frontiers and dynamics of human and animal pathogenic microbiology and food microbiology.
3. Research progress of animal immunology
It mainly introduces:
The generation, differentiation, surface markers, functional classification and antigen recognition and processing and presentation mechanisms of animal immune cells.
The mechanism of antibody structure and diversity.
The mechanism of humoral immune factors.
The genetic composition of histocompatibility complex and the relationship between its coding molecule and immune response.
The regulation of immune response, anti-infection immunity, modern immunology technology and its application in pathogen identification and disease diagnosis.
Development and utilization of biological products and diagnostic reagents.
4. Microbiology experiment technology
Common separation and identification technology of pathogenic microorganisms; fermentation technology of food microorganisms.
5. Experimental techniques of immunology
The principle, application prospects and scope of monoclonal antibody and cellular immune detection technology, master the preparation process of monoclonal antibody and the detection method of cellular immunology.
6. Recombinant DNA technology
The basic principle and main application technology of DNA recombination.
7. Molecular Biology
Lectures the material basis of biological inheritance, the process of DNA replication, transcription and its regulation and molecular mechanism.
What are the Progression and Experience stages of Microbiology?
Since ancient times, human beings have been aware of the life activities of microorganisms and their roles in daily life and production practices. Asia and China’s history of using microbes to make wine can be traced back to the Longshan Cultural Period more than 4,000 years ago. The oracle bone inscriptions of the Yin and Shang Dynasties were inscribed with the word “wine”.
The Northern Wei Jia Sixie’s “Qi Min Yao Shu” (533 ~ 544), lists the methods of cereal koji, wine, sauce, vinegar and pickles.
On the stone carvings left in ancient Greece, the operation process of wine making is recorded. During the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States Period, some countries use microbes to decompose organic substances to accumulate manure.
In the 1st century AD, The Book of Pan Sheng Sheng proposed a system of cooked manure fields and intercropping of melons and adzuki beans.
In the second century, “Shenyi Materia Medica”, there are records of white silkworm curing disease. In the 6th century “Zuo Zhuan”, there is a record of Maiqu treating diarrhea. In the “Golden Book of Medical Sect” of the 10th century, there are records about the method of vaccination. In 1796, the British E. Jenner invented the vaccinia vaccine, which laid the foundation for the development of immunology.
In the 17th century, the Dutch Levin Hook observed a tartar, rainwater, well water, and plant infusion with a simple microscope (160-260 times magnification), and found that there were many moving “tiny animals”, using text and the pictures scientifically record the different forms of bacteria (spherical, rod-shaped, spiral-shaped, etc.), which are the first “tiny animals” that humans see. Soon after, Italian botanist P. A Mikkeli also observed the morphology of the fungus with a simple microscope.
In 1838, the German zoologist C. G. In the book “Ciliates are Real Organisms”, Ellenberg divided the class of ciliates into 22 families, including 3 families of bacteria (he regarded bacteria as animals), and created bacteria (bacteria). word.
In 1854, the German botanist F. J. Coase discovered the spores of rod-shaped bacteria. He attributed the bacteria to the plant kingdom and determined the taxonomic status of the bacteria in the next hundred years.
Microbiology research has entered the stage of physiology since the 1960s. French scientist L. Pasteur’s research on microbial physiology laid the foundation for modern microbiology.
He argued that the brewing of wine and vinegar and the spoilage of some substances are fermentation processes caused by certain types of microorganisms, not microorganisms produced by fermentation or spoilage.
He believes that fermentation is the respiration of microorganisms in an environment without air, and the wine deterioration is the result of the growth of harmful microorganisms.
He further proves that different types of microorganisms have unique metabolic functions, each requiring different living conditions and causing different effects; he proposed a heating sterilization method to prevent wine deterioration, which was later called The pasteurization method uses this method to keep newly produced wine and beer for a long time.
Koch has made great contributions to the emerging medical microbiology. Koch first demonstrated that Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, and then found the causative bacteria of tuberculosis and cholera, and advocated the use of disinfection and sterilization methods to prevent the spread of these diseases.
His students also found diphtheria, pneumonia, tetanus and plague. The pathogenic bacteria, etc., led to a high degree of attention to bacteria at that time and for decades to come. He pioneered the method of bacterial staining, using agar as a coagulation medium to cultivate bacteria and isolate single colonies to obtain a pure culture operation process; He stipulated the methods and steps for identifying pathogenic bacteria, and proposed the famous Koch law.
A. In 1860, the British surgeon J. Lister applied sterilization of drugs and created a sterile surgical operation method. B. In 1901, the famous bacteriologist and zoologist И. И. Mechenikov discovered that the role of white blood cells in phagocytosis of bacteria contributed to the development of immunology.
C. Russian-born French microbiologist H. Vinograts was based on the discovery of sulfur bacteria in 1887 and nitrifying bacteria in 1890. He demonstrated the microbiological process of sulfation and nitrification in soil and the chemical energy nutritional characteristics of these bacteria.
He first discovered anaerobic autotrophic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and used inorganic media, selective media, enrichment culture and other principles and methods to study the life activities of various physiological groups of soil bacteria, revealing the involvement of soil microorganisms in the transformation of soil materials. This role laid the foundation for the development of soil microbiology.
D. In 1892, the Russian plant physiologist D. H. Ivanovsky found that tobacco mosaic pathogens are smaller than bacteria, can pass through bacterial filters, and can’t be observed by optical microscopes. They are called filter viruses.
E. From 1915 to 1917, F. W. Twett and F. H. De Herre observes the presence of plaque on bacterial colonies and bacteriolysis in the culture fluid, and finds the bacterial virus, bacteriophage. The discovery of viruses has expanded people’s concept of biology from cell morphology to non-cell morphology.
In this stage, the creation of microbial operating techniques and research methods is a unique symbol of the development of microbiology.
Since the 20th century, the penetration of biochemistry and biophysics into microbiology, coupled with the invention of electron microscopes and the application of isotope tracer atoms, has promoted the development of microbiology to the biochemical stage.
German scholars in 1897 Bishner found that the cell-free extract of yeast can have the same effect of fermenting sugar liquid as ethanol to produce ethanol, thus recognizing the enzymatic process of yeast alcohol fermentation, combining the life activities of microorganisms with enzyme chemistry. G. Neuberger et al.’S research on yeast physiology and analysis of alcohol fermentation intermediates, A. J. Kleivo’s research on microbial metabolism and the research direction of comparative biochemistry he pioneered.
A series of basic physiological and metabolic pathway studies conducted by many other people using E. coli as materials have clarified the metabolic laws and the basic principles of controlling its metabolism, and on the basis of controlling the metabolism of microorganisms, expand the use of microorganisms, develop enzymology and promote the development of biochemistry.
Since the 1930s, people have used microorganisms for industrial production of ethanol, acetone, butanol, glycerin, various organic acids, amino acids, proteins, oils and so on.
Molecular biology stage
In 1941, G. W. Biddle and E. L. Tatum irradiates Alternaria alternata with X-rays and ultraviolet rays to mutate them and obtain auxotrophy. Their research on auxotrophy can not only further understand the role and nature of genes, but also lay the foundation for molecular genetics.
In 1944, O. T. Avery confirmed for the first time that the substance that causes the transformation of pneumococcal capsular genetic traits is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
In 1953, J. D. Watson and F. H. C. Crick proposed the double helix structure model of DNA molecules and the semi-retained replication theory of nucleic acids.
H. Frankel-Conrad et al., through the tobacco mosaic virus recombination test, proved that ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a carrier of genetic information and played an important role in laying the foundation of molecular biology. Since then, it has successively discovered important theories in microbiology such as the mechanism of action of transporting ribonucleic acid (tRNA), the theory of gene triple coding, the fine structure of viruses and the process of infection and proliferation, and the mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation, which shows the broad application prospects of microbiology.
In 1957, A. Kornberg and others successfully performed in vitro DNA assembly and manipulation. In recent years, the research on gene recombination of prokaryotic microorganisms has continuously made progress. Insulin has been produced by fermentation of E. coli with gene transfer, and interferon has also been produced by bacteria. The research of modern microbiology will continue to deepen at the molecular level, and to the depth and breadth of production.
After more than a century of development, microbiology has differentiated a large number of branch disciplines. According to incomplete statistics (1990), it has reached 181.
According to its nature, it can be simply summarized into the following 6 categories:
1. According to the study of the basic life activities of microorganisms, the general subject is called General Microbiology, and the sub-disciplines such as microbiology taxonomy, microbial physiology, microbial genetics, microbial ecology and molecular microbiology, etc.
2. According to the researched microbial objects such as bacteriology, mycology (mycology), virology, prokaryotic biology, autotrophic bacteria biology and anaerobic bacteria biology, etc.
3. According to the ecological environment where microorganisms are located, such as soil microbiology, microecology, marine microbiology, environmental microbiology, water microbiology and cosmic microbiology.
4. According to the field of microbiology, the general subject is called Applied Microbiology (Applied Microbiology), sub-disciplines such as industrial microbiology, agricultural microbiology, medical microbiology, medicinal microbiology, diagnostic microbiology, antibiotics, food microbiology, etc.
5. According to the interdisciplinary and interdisciplinary integration, chemical microbiology, analytical microbiology, microbial bioengineering, microbial chemical taxonomy, microbial numerical taxonomy, microbial geochemistry and microbial informatics, etc.
6. According to experimental methods and techniques, such as experimental microbiology and microbiological research methods.
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