Principles of Management

Functions Features Classification and Academic Generes of Management

Meaning of Management: Management refers to the managers in a certain organization, through the implementation of planning, organization, leadership, coordination, control and other functions to coordinate the activities of others, so that others can achieve the established goals with themselves. It is the most common and important activity among various human activities. In the past hundred years, people have called the basic principles and methods of management formed by researching management activities collectively as management science. As a knowledge system, management science is a synthesis of management thoughts, management principles, management skills and methods. With the development of management practice, management science has continuously enriched its content and become a guide to guide people to carry out various management activities and effectively achieve management goals.

Discipline name: Management

Scope of application: Various organizations

Category: Coordinate Activities

Nature: Service

Synonyms: Governance

Subject: Management Psychology

Table of Content

1 Introduction

2 Main Meaning

3 Elements and Functions

4 Features and Content

▪ Features

▪ Content

5 Classification

6 Working objects

▪ Operator

▪ Management staff

7 Functions

▪ Decision

▪ Plan

▪ Organization

▪ Staff management

▪ Guidance and leadership

▪ Control

▪ Innovation

8 Academic Genres

9 Evolution Path

10 Mission and meaning


What is Management?

Introduction to Management: Management is the most common and important activity among various human activities. In the past hundred years, people have called the basic principles and methods of management formed by researching management activities collectively as management science.

As a knowledge system, management science is a synthesis of management thoughts, management principles, management skills and methods. With the development of management practice, management science has continuously enriched its content and become a guide to guide people to carry out various management activities and effectively achieve management goals.


What are managerial activities?

Management activities begin with the common labor in the lives of human groups, and now have a history of tens of thousands of years. As for what is management, experts and scholars still express their own opinions, and there is no unified expression.


1. Management refers to the effective decision-making, planning and organization of human, material, financial, and information resources owned by the organization through planning, organization, command, coordination, control and innovation under the specific environmental conditions. it is also leadership and control, with a view to efficiently achieving the established organizational goals.

2. Management is an activity process composed of functions such as planning, organization, command, coordination and control.

3. The tube was originally intended to be a slender and hollow object, which was blocked around and accessible from the center. Make it occlusive and block it. Make it sparse.

It means that there is clogging, sparseness and combination of sparseness and blocking.

Therefore, management includes not only the meaning of dredging, guiding, promoting, affirming, and opening; but also the meaning of restricting, circumventing, restricting, denying and closing.

Reason, the original meaning is analyzed for the pattern of the smooth jade.

It represents the truth of the things, the law of development, and contains the meaning of reasonableness and reasonableness . Management is like water control, combination of dredging and blocking, and compliance with the law.

Therefore, management is to reasonably clear and block thinking and behavior. (Minimalist Management: Chinese-style Management Operating System)

4. The broad sense of management refers to the use of scientific means to arrange and organize social activities so that they can proceed in an orderly manner.

The corresponding English is Administration, or Regulation. Narrow management refers to a series of planning, organization, coordination, control and decision-making activities implemented to ensure all business activities of a unit. The corresponding English is Manage or Run.

5. “Father of Science Management” Frederick Taylor (Frederick Winslow Taylor) believes: “Management is to know exactly what you want others to do, and make him use the best method to do it.” According to Taylor, management is to direct others to work in the best way.

6. Nobel Prize winner Herbert A. Simon defines management as: “Management is making decisions.” (“New Science of Management Decision”)

7. Peter F. Drucker believes: “Management is a kind of work, it has its own skills, tools and methods; management is an organ, is an organ that gives life, activity, and dynamic to the organization.

Management is a science, a systematic and applicable knowledge; at the same time, management is also a culture. “(” Management: tasks, responsibilities, practice “)

8. Henri Fayol (Henri Fayol) in his famous book “Industrial Management and General Management” gives the concept of management, it has produced a full century of influence, has a significant influence on the development of Western management theory.

Fayol believes that management is an activity that all human organizations have.

This activity consists of five elements: planning, organization, command, coordination and control.

Fayol’s views on management are highly respected and affirmed by future generations, forming a management process school. Koontz was the successor and advocate of this school after World War II, making it popular all over the world.

9. Stephen Robbins defines management as: The so-called management refers to the process of making activities more effective with others or through others.

10. Wu Guangyang’s definition of management: Management, as the name implies, manages the most basic behaviors and executes the problems of the original ideal, called management.

11. Management refers to the optimal allocation of biological, non-biological, capital, information, energy and other resource elements possessed by the system through planning, organization, command, coordination, control, feedback and other means under specific time and space conditions.

The process of the goal of biological flow, non-biological flow, capital flow, information flow and energy flow that the system demands.


What are Elements and Functions of Management?

There are five elements of management, mainly as follows:

i. Management subject: organizations or individuals exercising management, including government departments and business departments.

ii. Management object: all objects within the jurisdiction of the management subject, including the crowd, material, funds, science and technology and information, the crowd is the basic.

iii. Management goals: The new realm that the management subject is expected to achieve is the starting point and destination of management activities, and it should reflect the will of the superior leadership and subordinate personnel.

iv. Management methods: the ways and means by which the management subject acts on the management object, including administrative methods, economic methods, legal methods and ideological education methods.

v. Management theory: guide the norms and theories of management.

In addition, there are five major functions of management, namely: planning, organization, command, supervision and adjustment, planning is the most basic function.


What are the Features of Management?

1. Management is one of the common and common social phenomena

2. Management is one of the most important social activities

3. Management is an act of both vitality and creativity


(1) What is Management System?

Management is all-encompassing and permeates all fields. Wherever there is crowd activity, there is management. From the whole society, a country, down to every family and everyone, can not do without management.

(2) Management methods: Society is a large and complicated system, with all kinds of clues, how to manage it?

Management scientists have proposed four management methods: organization, law, person and information.

(i) An organization is an organizational structure that makes management objects a system. Without institutions, there is no organization. It cannot be managed without a system

(ii) Laws, policies and laws are derived from management objectives. In management activities, it stipulates what should be done and what should not be done by people under management. It is the people’s action criterion.

(iii) People are the most active factors in management. Institutions are composed of people, management functions are exercised by people, and policies and laws are formulated by people.

Giving full play to people’s enthusiasm and creativity is an important means to do a good job of management.

(iv) Information, without using information, you will not know the development situation of things, which will cause blindness of management. It is an important tool for management.

(3) Management objects: things are diverse, complex and ever-changing. What to manage?

Scientists have proposed five main management objects: people, money, things, time and information.

(i) People are the creators of social wealth, the stewards of things, the users of time, and the communicators of information. They are the core and foundation of the management objects. Only by taking good care of people is it possible to manage wealth, things, time, and information

(ii) wealth is the basis for human clothing, food, shelter, and their interactions. Managers must consider using limited financial resources to receive more economic benefits.

(iii) Things are the source of human wealth creation. Managers must fully and reasonably and effectively use them to serve the social system.

(iv) Time is reflected in speed and efficiency. An efficient management system must fully consider how to use the shortest time possible and do more.

(v) Information, only management information, timely grasp of information, and correct use of information can make management invincible.

(4) What is the management function?

Management function: At present, there is no unified view at home and abroad. Some scholars in our country believe that management should have five functions: planning and forecasting, organization and command, supervision and control, education and incentive, potential tapping and innovation.

The development of management theory can be summarized in the following stages:

(i) the classical research focusing on the production process and administrative control.

(ii) the research on interpersonal relationship and behavioral science.

(iii) the research on management science and system analysis, and finally Form a modern management theory.

Management is a very complicated thing. Different levels, different departments, different industries, there are certain differences in the content and focus of management.

However, the nature and function of management is something common in all management, and is the basic problem of scientific management.


What is Management Classification?

Management can be divided into many types of management, such as administrative management, social management, industrial and commercial enterprise management, human resource management, information management and so on.

The management of industrial and commercial enterprises is most common in the modern market economy. Every organization needs to manage all resources such as its affairs, assets, personnel, and equipment.

Everyone also needs to manage, such as managing their own daily diet, time, health, emotions, learning, occupation, wealth, interpersonal relationships, social activities, spiritual appearance (i.e. dressing).

Enterprise management can be divided into several branches: human resource management, financial management, production management, material control management, marketing management, cost management, R & D management, etc.

In the management of enterprise systems, it can be divided into the management of enterprise strategy, business model, business process, enterprise structure, enterprise system, enterprise culture and other systems.

The undertakers of the management subject can be divided into macro management and micro management, macro management is the government department, micro management is the business department, and micro management is the basis of macro management.

The activity attributes of the management object can be divided into social management, economic management and Cultural management and economic management are the foundations.

Health management generally belongs to the category of social management.

The management methods of the management subject can be divided into decision management and implementation management.

The two penetrate each other. Decision is the core of management.

Management does not only refer to business management, although the management of business enterprises is most common in the modern market economy.

In addition to business management, there are many types of management, such as administrative management, economic management, social management, urban management, health management and so on.

Every organization needs to manage its affairs, resources, and personnel.

When the legalization of the market economy became more and more important, a new management school was born: the school of legal business management.


What is the Work Object of Management?

Work Object is defines as follows:

i. Who are Operators in Management?

Meaning: The operator refers to manufacturing products or providing services directly in a position or a task, and is not responsible for supervising the work of others.

ii. Who is a Manager?

1. Meaning: A person responsible for planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling human, financial, material and information resources in an organization.

2. Managers accomplish their work through others, make decisions, allocate resources, and guide others’ actions to achieve their goals.

iii. What is the Classification of Management?

(1) Managers at different levels: senior managers, middle managers, and grassroots managers.

(2) Managers in different fields: marketing managers, financial managers, production and operation managers, personnel managers, administrative managers, and other types of managers.


What are the Functions of Management?

French management scholar Fayol initially proposed to divide the basic functions of management into planning, organization, command, coordination and control.

Later, some scholars believed that staffing, leadership incentives, and innovation were also management functions. Divided into seven categories:

    i. What is Decision Making in Management?

Decision-making is the process of the selection or adjustment of the direction, content and method of relevant activities within a certain period in the future by an organization or individual in order to achieve a certain purpose.

Simply put, decision-making is to decide and choose. Decision-making is the core issue of planning.

Only by making scientific decisions on the objectives and implementation methods of the plan, can a scientific and reasonable plan be made.

It is generally believed that decision-making is the essence of management.

ii. What is Planning in Management?

The plan is to determine the organization’s future development goals and the way to achieve them.

iii. What is Organization in Management?

Organization is obeying the plan and reflects the way the organization plan accomplishes its goals.

iv. What is People Management?

Personnel management is the appropriate and effective selection, training, and evaluation of various personnel.

Its purpose is to equip appropriate personnel to fill up the various duties specified by the organization, so as to ensure the normal conduct of organizational activities, and then achieve the organization’s set goals.

The other four functions of staffing and management

planning, organization, guidance and leadership and control have a close relationship, which directly affects whether the organization’s goals can be achieved.

v. What is Guidance and Leadership?

Guidance and leadership is an activity process that guides and influences the behavior of each member and all members of the organization.

Its purpose is to enable individuals and groups to voluntarily and confidently strive to achieve the organization’s set goals. Guidance and leadership involve the relationship between supervisors and subordinates.

Guidance and leadership is a behavioral activity that has formed a special leadership science and has become a new branch of management science.

vi. What is Management Control?

Control is to monitor and inspect the activities of the organization according to the established goals and standards, find deviations, and take corrective measures so that the work can be carried out according to the original plan, or the plan is appropriately adjusted to achieve the intended purpose.

Control work is a continuous and recurring process. Its purpose is to ensure that the actual activities and results of the organization are consistent with the expected goals.

vii. What is Innovation in Management?

Innovation means that with the development of science and technology, social and economic activities are unprecedentedly active, market demands are changing rapidly, and social relations are becoming more and more complex, so that every manager will always encounter new situations and new problems.

Urgent changes require innovation. Innovation is at the pivotal position in the management cycle.


Management Academic Genre

Although these schools have their own views on management and their own theoretical ideas. But from the content point of view, it does not exceed three major contents: organization, management methods and management.

Classical organizational theory Fayol and Weber’s typical organizational research results

The school of management is specialized in researching management theories and management issues in management.

The research content of the contingency theory school, management science school, etc. is nothing but the scientific way of organization and management within the organization.

The principle of scientific management, Taylor, can be attributed to a management method or method in essence.

This is because the scientific work and collaboration of people and the study of the relationship between human motivation and efficiency are actually the development of corresponding management methods.

C. I. Barnard, the representative of the social system school, whose research results are just how the organization operates effectively from the perspective of the role of managers in the organization.

The representative of the decision theory school, Simon (HA Nobel Prize winner in 1978), believes that decision-making implements the whole process of management, management is decision-making, organization is decision-making, and organization is a system composed of individuals as decision-makers.

However, looking at his work, in addition to the above viewpoints in terms of organization, the rest is mainly the development of a scientific method of decision-making.

Representatives of the School of Behavioral Science include E. Mayo, AH Maslow, D. MeGregor, K. Lewin and JS Mouton, etc.

Studying interpersonal relationships, some study the relationship between human needs and behavior, some discuss human nature and corresponding management issues.

Some others study informal organization issues in formal organizations, as well as two-factor models, management methods and so on.

The former can be attributed to the dynamic process of the organization, while the latter can be attributed to the discussion of people-oriented management methods.


What is the Evolution Path of Management?

1. The evolution path of organizational theory research:

Classical Organization Theory (Classical Theory, 1920s)

Organizational Behavior (Organizational Behavior, 1940s)

Organization (Social Technology System, 1960s)

Leadership Science (Manager Role, 1970s)

Organizational Culture (Enterprise Culture, 80s)-(90s)

2. The evolution path of research on management methods:

Scientific Management Theory (Tyro, 1920s)

Behavioral Science (Mayo, 1930s)

Management Science Theory (Burfa, 50s)

Decision Theory (Simon, 1960s)

Production Management, Information Management Method (70-80s)-(90s).

3. The evolution path of management theory research:

Firm Theory (20s)-Industrial Organization (Bain, 1940s)-Marketing (Kottler, 1960s)-Consumer Theory (1970s)-Strategy (Strategic Management) (Porter, 80s)-(90s).


What is Task of Management?

Task and Meaning: The task of management is to design and maintain an environment where people working in this environment can achieve the set goals with as little expenditure as possible, or to achieve the maximum goals with existing resources.

It is subdivided into 4 situations:

  • Unchanged output and reduced expenditure.
  • Unchanged expenditure and increased output.
  • Decreased expenditure and increased output.
  • Increased expenditure and increased output.

The expenditure here includes the consumption of capital, manpower, time, materials, energy, etc. In short, the basic principle of management is “less effort, more achievements.”

The less resources and expenditure, the greater the achievements and effects.

The significance of management is to carry out activities more effectively, improve work, meet customer needs more effectively, and improve effectiveness, efficiency, and effectiveness.



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