Human Resource Management – Frequently Asked Questions
Human Resource Meaning: Human resources management refers to a series of human resources policies and corresponding management activities of enterprises. All industries carry out these activities including medical, health and fitness industries where there are employees or human resources. These activities mainly include the formulation of corporate human resources strategies, employee recruitment and selection, training and development, performance management, salary management, employee mobility management, employee relationship management, employee safety and health management, etc. That is, the enterprise uses modern management methods to plan, organize, command, control and coordinate human resources acquisition (selection), development (education), maintenance (retention) and utilization (employment).
What is the definition of Human Resource Management?
HRM is Formulation of corporate human resources strategies, employee recruitment and selection, training and development, performance management, salary management, employee mobility management, employee relationship management, employee safety and health management, etc.
A series of activities, ultimately achieve a management behavior to achieve corporate development goals. The performance of these activities take place in all industries whether manufacturing or services including health, medical and fitness industries. E.g. medical staff management is a part of it.
The ultimate goal of human resource management is to promote the realization of corporate goals.
Armstrong made the following provisions on the goals of the human resources management system:
(1) The goal of the enterprise will eventually be achieved through its most valuable resource-its employees.
(2) In order to improve the performance of individual employees and the company as a whole, people should take the promotion of the success of the company as their duty.
(3) The formulation of a coherent human resources policy and system that is closely linked to the performance of the enterprise is the necessary prerequisite for the enterprise to use resources and achieve business goals most effectively.
(4) Efforts should be made to find the matching and unification between human resources management policies and business objectives
(5) When the corporate culture is reasonable, the human resource management policy should play a supporting role.
When the corporate culture is unreasonable, the human resource management policy should promote its improvement
(6) Create an ideal corporate environment, encourage employees to create and cultivate a positive style.
Human resources policies should provide a suitable environment for cooperation, innovation and the improvement of overall quality management.
(7) Create a responsive and adaptable organizational system to help companies achieve specific goals in a competitive environment.
(8) Enhance the flexibility of employees’ working hours and work content.
(9) Provide relatively perfect working and organizational conditions to provide employees with all the support they need to fully realize their potential.
(10) Maintain and improve the workforce and products and services.
Whats is the history and development of human resource management?
Human resource management is an emerging discipline that came out in the late 1970s.
Although the history of human resource management is not long, the idea of personnel management has a long history.
From the time point of view, the industrial revolution from the end of the 18th century until the 1970s was called the traditional personnel management stage.
Since the late 1970s, personnel management has given way to human resource management.
I. What is the Personnel management stage?
Personnel management stage can be divided into the following stages: scientific management stage, industrial psychology stage, interpersonal relationship management stage.
(1) What is the Scientific management stage?
In the early 20th century, represented by Friedrich Taylor and others, he pioneered the scientific management theory school and promoted the large-scale promotion and development of scientific management practice in the United States.
Taylor proposed “piece-rate wage system” and “hourly wage system”, and proposed to implement labor quota management.
In 1911, Taylor published the book “Principles of Scientific Management”, which laid the foundation of the theory of scientific management, and was therefore called “the father of scientific management” by Western management circles.
(2) What is the Industrial psychology stage?
The research results of psychologists represented by German psychologist Hugo Munsterberg and others have promoted the scientific process of personnel management.
Hugo Munsterberg’s “Psychology and Industrial Efficiency” published in 1913 marked the birth of industrial psychology.
(3) What is the Interpersonal relationship management stage?
In 1929, Harvard University professor Mayo led a research team to conduct a Hawthorne experiment for nine years at the Westinghouse Electric Company Hawthorne plant, which truly opened the prelude to the study of the behavior of people in the organization.
II. What is the human resources management stage?
Human resources management stage can be divided into two stages: the proposal of human resources management and the development of human resources management.
The concept of “human resources” was proposed and clearly defined by Peter Drucker in his book “Management Practices” as early as 1954.
Since the 1980s, the theory of human resource management has continuously matured and has been further developed in practice, widely accepted by enterprises, and gradually replaced personnel management.
In the 1990s, the theory of human resource management continued to develop and mature.
People discuss more about how human resource management can serve the company’s strategic services, and how the role of the human resources department can be transformed into a strategic partnership of business management.
The proposal and development of strategic human resource management theory marks a new stage of modern human resource management.
What is the development trend of human resource management?
“People” is the most important asset of an organization and a key factor of competitiveness.
Therefore, no matter whether it is an institution, a public agency or a legal entity, it pays more and more attention to the cultivation of talents, and even invests a lot of money in education and training.
The purpose of cultivating talents is to develop and enhance the overall capabilities of the organization or to inherit the experience and maintain the core capabilities.
It can be seen that the development of the organization has a direct and close relationship with the development of talents.
It can even be asserted that an organization that does not value the cultivation and maintenance of talents will lose its competitiveness and face ruthless elimination.
“Training and development” is the main method of cultivating talents and the most extensive and far-reaching organizational function.
Education and training do make an important contribution in terms of developing the capabilities of the personnel and thereby stimulating their potential.
However, because each employee has different qualifications and capabilities, it is naturally impossible to adopt a universal training method.
Therefore, how to classify and classify according to “talent” and organizational development needs, and from knowledge, attitude and skill, considering the design of the course and selecting suitable lecturers are the most important topics for every training professional.
Today, as we move towards the 21st century, changes in the economic environment, changes in social values, explosion of information and rapid changes in technology are challenging the professional abilities of the training workers.
Only by continuous enrichment and learning can we maintain competence.
Only by taking the lead can we provide greater contributions to the organization, play a key role in cultivating talents, and push the organization towards a more promising tomorrow.
“The Top Ten Trends in HRD” written by Laurie Bassi, George Benson and Scott Cheney in the “Position Yourself for the Future” booklet published by the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) To the future development trend of human resources development (HRD), excerpts are as follows:
(1) Professional technology will continue
In response to the rapid changes in technology, the demand for professional technology will continue to increase for nearly half a century.
Due to the continuous innovation of science and technology, the impact of the entire world is difficult to assess. It has a wide range of political types, economies and cultures.
At the same time, it also drives the change of the pattern of manpower use. Because of this change, we have begun to use and enjoy the convenience of many high-tech products, but professionals familiar with these products must be as sophisticated as these high-tech products, so professional requirements for personnel will become the focus of human demand.
(2) Employees will receive more training
Taking the United States as an example, women and minority ethnic groups such as temporary workers, part-time personnel, older employees.
The number of training opportunities and the number of training opportunities is much less than that of major white male workers .
Such a gap will cause conflicts in the workplace due to the drop in education.
In the future, the level of training will be more extensive, and it will also develop in the direction of training multi-functional workers.
(3) Institutional changes will affect the scale of training funds
Institutional changes will continue to promote new changes in the economic environment and patterns, and the pressure caused by this change will also relatively affect the frequency and scale of education and training.
Traditionally, the top 500 US companies have set aside a fixed amount of funds for training activities each year. Their scale is proportional to the size of the organization.
In other words, if the organization shrinks due to the environment, its training scale will also shrink. This is the situation.
In the past, when the organization was booming, employees had a considerable sense of identification with the organization’s vision. Thus, providing more training activities was common.
Once the organization’s size changed from large to medium, training would shrink accordingly.
(4) The training department will have a dramatic change in scale and role
The first is that the situation of training outsourcing will gradually increase.
Considering the cost and professionalism, the cost of the training department within the institution is worse than that of multiple institutions.
Sharing a professional training center to get the economy together, external resources are now readily available. Such a change definitely involves the role and positioning of the training department.
Therefore, the second is that the training department will shift from the traditional training department to the perspective of a consultant. This means that the training department must bear the responsibility of promoting the future development of the organization.
Also, must combine the role of the consultant with the institutional home. The vision is at the forefront of organizational development.
(5) The development of science and technology will cause a revolutionary change in training methods
Currently, traditional classroom training methods are still mainstream, but methods based on high-tech products will develop extremely rapidly.
The advancement of hardware equipment, the vigorous development of computer networks, multimedia teaching, video conferencing, etc.
These high-tech will bring faster training with amazing potential, and make education and training closer to employees’ work sites (such as: Distance teaching), bringing more direct and rapid effects.
(6) The training department will switch to a new way to provide services
In the United States, the training and human resources development departments are hardly immune to changes caused by changes in the entire organization, such as downsizing, reorganization and personnel streamlining.
It is necessary to be closer to the employees’ work place to reduce training costs. In other words, to make more effective use of the resources of the existing environment for training.
Therefore, the future trend will no longer send employees out of the department for long-term training, but will instead consider the work location of neighboring employees, which further confirms the importance of the OJT system.
(7) Training professionals will focus on improving performance
Training will have a more focused focus and be closer to the organization’s goals, that is, achievement and improvement of performance.
Under the fierce global competition, the organization must pay attention to the changes in the situation, and strictly examine each work and process, whether it has a positive effect on the company ’s strategy and the organization’s goals.
Obviously, it also includes the training department, so professional.
The focus of personnel’s attention will be changed from the course hours to the performance improvement of individuals and organizations.
(8) Generation of a large number of reintegrated organizations
The integrated high-performance work system will generate a large number of reintegrated organizations to play more functions.
So at the same time we will regard the training department as a general business unit, and re-examine its role and measure the performance it creates.
In addition, how to assist the reorganized project team and departments to do the best cooperation with each other will be the focus of future training.
(9) The organization will be transformed into a learning organization
The concept of establishing a learning organization will become a trend, and more and more companies will develop in the future. Many organizations will be based on knowledge, so “learning” will be promoted to different levels, such as individuals, project teams, departments, etc.
(10) People are the largest assets of the organization
There will be more specific actions to verify the concept of “people are the most important assets in the organization.”
Therefore, the maximization of human resources management and performance management will have an impact on the organization in the future. Has great meaning.
What are the characteristics of modern human resource management?
(1) Humanistic characteristics
Human resources management adopts a human-oriented approach, and always implements the theme that employees are a valuable asset of the organization. Thus, emphasizing care and love for people, and protecting, using and developing people as resources.
(2) Professionalism and practicality
Human resources management is one of the most important management functions of the organization, with high professionalism.
From the versatile of small companies to the human resources experts and high-level human resources leaders of large companies, there are very detailed professional divisions and in-depth professional knowledge.
Human resource management is the basic practical activity of organizational management, and it is the main activity aimed at achieving organizational goals, showing its high degree of applicability.
(3) Win-win and reciprocity
Human resources management adopts a reciprocal orientation, emphasizing that management should be a dual result of obtaining organizational performance and employee satisfaction and growth.
Emphasizing the “common interests” between the organization and employees, and attaching importance to exploring employees’ greater initiative and sense of responsibility.
(4) Strategic and comprehensive
Human resources management focuses on the management of personnel who create wealth and create a competitive advantage for the organization in the management of the organization management.
Human resources management is the management of the overall activities and recruitment, appointment, training and development of all personnel.
As long as there are activities and places where people are involved, human resource management must be carried out.
(5) The interdisciplinarity of theoretical foundation
Human resources management adopts a scientific orientation and attaches importance to the theoretical basis and guidance of interdisciplinary subjects, including management, psychology, economics, law, sociology and other disciplines.
Therefore, modern human resources management has put more emphasis on the professional quality of its professionals High demands.
(6) Systematic and holistic
Human resources management adopts a system orientation, emphasizing the overall treatment of people and organizations, taking into account the technical system and social psychological system of the organization emphasizing the integrity of operations.
On the one hand, there is consistency between the functions of human resources management, on the other hand cooperate with other strategies in the organization, rely on and support the strategy and management of the entire organization.
What are the new characteristics of human resource management?
Through the analysis of the characteristics of the new economy era, the characteristics of human resources in the new economy are obtained:
(1) The new economic era is an era of sovereignty of talents and an era of talent winners taking all
In this era, knowledge and professional entrepreneurs have become the dominant elements of enterprise value creation.
The contribution and value of knowledge innovators and professional entrepreneurs to enterprises have enabled them to claim residual value and changed capital ownership and knowledge owners.
The game relationship between them established the foundation and theoretical basis of talent sovereignty.
In addition, in the era of knowledge economy, society’s demand for knowledge and intellectual capital is more intense than in any previous era, leading to an intensified phenomenon of knowledge innovators and entrepreneurs waiting for talent.
The scarcity of talents, huge value-added space and the high return of HR make capital chase talents wildly.
In knowledge innovation companies, talents can transform knowledge into capital by introducing risk capital, capitalize knowledge, and realize knowledge hire capital.
As John Chambers, President of Cisco, Inc. (CISCO) said: “It is better to say that we are M & A talents than we are M & A enterprises.”
Therefore, in the new economic era, talents have more right to choose employment and independent decision of work.
Talents do not simply obtain wage income through labor, but share creative achievements with capital owners. To this end, enterprises must respect the right of talents to choose and work independently. It should also stand in the perspective of talents’ internal needs, to provide products and services for talents, to win talents’ satisfaction and loyalty.
(2) As a strategic partner of enterprise managers, HR conducts strategic HR management
In the past, the HR management department only existed as a non-mainstream functional department because it did not directly create value.
With the advent of the new economy, the management function of HR will undergo a fundamental transformation, gradually liberating from operational and administrative affairs.
It will be going from behind the scenes to the stage, participating in the strategic management of the enterprise, and integrating the HR strategy and the business strategy of the enterprise.
Combined, support enterprises to achieve business goals.
At this time, the management function of HR is a strategic partner of strategically-oriented business operators.
It shoulders the responsibilities of organizational restructuring, establishment of learning organization and promotion of enterprise reform.
(3) Change of HR management content
In the 21st century, employees have become customers of enterprises, and the continuous provision of customized HR products and services to employees has become a new function of HR management.
It has become the main task of the HR management department to absorb, retain, motivate, and develop the talents needed by enterprises.
The products and services provided by the enterprise to employees include:
A common vision to meet employees ’career development expectations, provide a competitive salary system and value-sharing system to meet the diverse needs of employees, provide continuous HR development, training, and improve employee manpower.
Capital value-added human capital value-added services, authorize employees to participate in management, and support employees to complete personal and organizational development goals.
(4) The core of HR management-the management of knowledge workers
In the 21st century, the core of the country is the enterprise, and the core of the enterprise is the talent.
The core of talents is knowledge innovators and entrepreneurs. To this end, HR managers should pay attention to the following characteristics of knowledge workers, focusing on the development and management of knowledge workers.
i. Knowledge employees have strong independence and autonomy in the organization because of their knowledge capital, it is difficult to authorize management.
It is difficult to coordinate the contradiction between the individual’s professional dedication and the company’s pursuit of market value.
Also, it is difficult to design knowledge Work, virtual work team.
ii. Knowledge employees have a high willingness to move. Their pursuit of lifelong employability has increased the company’s HR investment risk and liquidity management crisis.
iii. The working process of knowledge workers is difficult to monitor directly, and the work results are difficult to measure, which makes the establishment of a value evaluation system complicated and uncertain.
iv. The ability and contribution of knowledge workers vary greatly, and there is also a mixed and alternating demand pattern.
Demand factors and demand structure have also undergone new changes, such as the need for profit and information sharing, the need to increase lifelong employability, the need for job change and increased mobility, and the need for personal growth and development. This all complicates the design of compensation.
v. In the 21st century knowledge innovation enterprise, knowledge replaces authority.
he value of a person to a company no longer depends only on the level of his management position, but on the size of his knowledge and information.
These new characteristics of knowledge-based employees require radical changes in leadership styles, and require interactions between leaders and leaders to establish trust, communication, commitment and learning.
To this end, HR management should focus on establishing knowledge work systems and innovative mechanisms, Achieve fuzzy management.
(5) To realize the realization and appreciation of human capital value by managing the HR value chain
Value creation is to affirm the leading role of knowledge innovators and entrepreneurs in enterprise value creation in philosophy.
The focus of enterprise HR management should follow the Pareto 80/20 law, that is, focus on those who account for only 20% of the number of enterprise personnel Key employees. They are not only the creators of 80% of corporate value, but also can drive other 80% of employees.
In HR management, we must pay attention to the formation of the core, backbone and backbone of the company “value creation” staff team.
We must use an effective value evaluation mechanism to achieve a fair, competitive and diverse value distribution, in order to motivate talent, Create talent.
(6) A new model of employee-enterprise relationship-a strategic partnership with a labor contract and a psychological contract as a double link
On one hand, it is necessary to determine the power and obligation relationship between employees and the company according to market rules.
on the other hand, the company and employees work together to establish a common vision, reach consensus on core values on the basis of common wish, cultivate professional ethics. Realize employee self-development and management.
In this way, the enterprise and employees will grow and develop together to achieve a win-win goal.
(7) Informationization and globalization of HR management
With the development of the Internet and information technology, informatization has become an important means for countries and enterprises to enhance their competitiveness.
The informatization process of enterprises has enabled HR to change working methods, improve work efficiency, and regulate business processes through computer technology and network technology. And provide value-added services to enterprises and employees.
The globalization of HR is manifested in the systematic integration and management of global concepts of employees and managers, the internationalization of talent flow, the internationalization of talent market competition, and cross-cultural management.
(8) The core task of HR management is to build the advantage of intellectual capital, and the roles of HR personnel are multiple and professional
In the 21st century, the core strength of an enterprise depends on the uniqueness of intellectual capital.
Intellectual capital includes three aspects:
- Human capital
- Customer capital
- Organizational structure capital
The core task of human capital is to enhance the value of customer relations through the effective development and management of HR.
What is the content of human resource management?
Usually includes the following specific content:
(1) Job analysis and design
Based on the relevant information obtained by investigation and analysis of the nature, structure, responsibilities, processes of the various job positions of the enterprise, and the qualities, knowledge, skills, etc. of the staff qualified for the position, write personnel description documents such as job descriptions and job specifications .
(2) Human resources planning
Transform the human resources strategy of the enterprise into mid- and long-term goals, plans and policy measures. this should include the analysis of the current status of human resources, the forecast and balance of the future supply and demand of personnel, to ensure that the enterprise can obtain the required human resources when needed.
(3) Staff recruitment and selection
According to the requirements of human resource planning and job analysis, the human resources needed for the recruitment and selection of enterprises are recruited and arranged to certain positions.
(4) Performance evaluation
Evaluate and evaluate employees ‘contributions to the enterprise and the performance achieved in the work within a certain period of time.
Make timely feedback in order to improve and improve the employees’ work performance.
Provide a basis for personnel training, promotion, compensation and other personnel decisions.
(5) Salary management
Including the design and management of basic salary, performance salary, bonus, allowance and welfare and other salary structure to encourage employees to work harder for the company.
(6) Staff motivation
Incentive theories and methods are used to meet or limit employees ‘various needs to varying degrees, causing changes in employees’ psychological conditions and inspiring employees to work toward the goals desired by the enterprise.
(7) Training and development
Improve the knowledge, ability, work attitude and work performance of employees, groups and the entire enterprise through training.
Further develop the intellectual potential of employees to enhance the contribution rate of human resources.
(8) Career planning
Encourage and care for employees ‘personal development, and help employees formulate personal development plans to further stimulate employees’ enthusiasm and creativity.
(9) Human resources accounting
Cooperate with the financial department to establish a human resources accounting system.
Carry out the accounting of human resource investment costs and output benefits.
Provide a basis for human resource management and decision-making.
(10) Labor relationship management
Coordinate and improve the labor relationship between the company and employees, carry out corporate culture construction.
Create a harmonious labor relationship and a good working atmosphere.
Ensure the normal development of the company’s business activities.
What are the Functions of human resource management?
Modern enterprise human resource management has the following five basic functions:
According to the required employee conditions determined by the company’s goals, through planning, recruitment, examinations, evaluation, selection and obtain the personnel required by the company.
Through the effective integration of corporate culture, information communication, harmonious interpersonal relationships, and resolution of conflicts and conflicts.
Determine that the goals, behaviors, and attitudes of individuals and the masses within the enterprise are in line with the requirements and concepts of the enterprise, so that it forms a high degree of cooperation and coordination. Its advantages help improve the productivity and efficiency of enterprises.
(3) Keep it
Through a series of management activities such as salary, assessment, promotion, etc., to maintain the enthusiasm, initiative and creativity of employees, safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of workers.
Ensure the safety, health, and comfortable working environment of employees in the workplace.
In order to increase employee satisfaction assign work that makes you feel at ease.
Make comprehensive assessment, appraisal and evaluation of employees’ work results, labor attitudes, skill levels and other aspects to provide a basis for making corresponding rewards and punishments, lifting, leaving and other decisions.
Through employee training, job enrichment, career planning and development, promote the improvement of employees’ knowledge, skills and other aspects.
Enhance their labor capabilities and maximize their personal value and contribution rate to the company to reach employees . This is to achieve the purpose of personal and corporate development.
What are the Human Resources Management responsibilities?
Human resource management responsibilities refer to the responsibilities and tasks that human resource managers need to undertake.
In his book “Human Resource Management”, Gary Desler cited the responsibilities of a human resource manager of a large company in terms of effective human resource management as the following ten aspects:
- Assign the right jobs to the appropriate people
- Guide new employees into the organization (familiar with the environment)
- Train new employees to adapt to new jobs
- Improve the work performance of each new employee
- Strive to achieve creative cooperation and establish a harmonious working relationship
- Explain company policies and working procedures
- Control labor costs
- Develop the work skills of each employee
- Create and maintain the morale of employees in the department
- Protect the health of employees and improve the material environment of work.
What is strategic human resource management?
With the trend of network, flexibility, diversification and globalization in the future organization of human resources management, new changes will take place in terms of management objectives, management functions, management technology and requirements for managers.
In terms of management objectives, future human resource management is strategic human resource management.
Strategic human resource management, that is, human resource management around the enterprise’s strategic goals.
Human resource management has begun to enter the decision-making level of the enterprise.
The planning and strategies of human resource management are in line with the business strategy of the enterprise. This not only gives full play to the advantages of human resource management, but also injects new vitality and vitality into the entire management of the enterprise.
The characteristics of strategic human resource management are mainly reflected in the following aspects:
(1) In terms of management concept, human resources are considered to be the most precious resource among all resources.
The developed human resources can appreciate and increase value, which can bring huge profits to enterprises.
(2) In terms of management content, the focus is on developing human potential, inspiring human vitality, and enabling employees to carry out their work in a proactive, active and creative manner.
(3) Emphasizing overall development in the form of management, it is necessary to do a career design, continuous training, continuous adjustment of positions according to corporate goals and personal conditions, and give full play to personal talent.
(4) In terms of management methods, humane management is adopted, and human emotion, self-esteem and value are considered.
(5) In terms of management methods, the computer automatically generates results in human resources information systems, etc., and provides timely and accurate basis for decision-making.
(6) At the management level, the human resources management department is at the decision-making level. It directly participates in enterprise planning and decision-making.
What are the human resources management methods?
Following are the HRM methods:
1. What is “Drawer” management?
In modern management, it is also called “job analysis”. Today, some large and medium-sized enterprises in economically developed countries attach great importance to “drawer-style” management and job classification. Also, all have established job classification systems to varying degrees on the basis of “drawer-style” management.
According to survey statistics: Thailand adopted 50% of the enterprises that adopted “drawer” management in 1981.
It was 75% in 1985 and more than 95% in 1999.
In recent years, large and medium-sized enterprises in Hong Kong have also generally implemented “drawer-style” management.
“Drawer-style” management is a popular image of management term.
It describes that there is a clear job specification in the drawer of each manager’s desk.
In the management work, there must be no positions, no rights, nor responsibility has no power, let alone power without responsibility, and must combine duties, responsibilities, rights and interests.
The enterprise has the following five steps for “drawer” management:
The first step is to establish a job analysis team composed of various departments of the enterprise.
The second step is to correctly handle the relationship between centralization and decentralization within the enterprise.
The third step is to decompose layers around the overall goals of the enterprise and implement the scope of responsibilities and authorities.
The fourth step is to compile the “Job Description” and “Job Specifications” and work out the requirements for each job.
The fifth step must consider the combination of the assessment system and the reward and punishment system.
2. What is Crisis management?
In the world’s leading large enterprises, as the world economic competition has become increasingly fierce, a considerable part has entered the maintenance and recession stage, Kodak and Coca-Cola.
Large companies such as DuPont and Ford have also experienced large operating losses.
In order to change the situation, American companies pay more attention to the implementation of “crisis-style” production management, setting off a wave of “doom management”.
American business community believes that if an operator cannot communicate well with employees and cannot show his employees that the crisis does exist, then he will soon lose credibility. Thus, will lose efficiency and effectiveness.
William Weiss, president of American Technology Corporation, saw that the world has become a competitive battlefield. Also, he saw that the global telecommunications industry is playing an important role in the transformation. Therefore, he hired two boldly reformed senior executives as vice-chairmen, removed five senior executives who were inclined to make gradual reforms, and widely promoted among the employees that some companies neglected product quality and increased costs, leading to the loss of users.
In the crisis, he wants all employees to know that if the technology company does not put product quality, production cost and users in a prominent position at all times, the end of the company will come.
3. What is “One minute” management?
At present, many western companies have adopted the “one minute” management rule, and achieved remarkable results.
The specific contents are: one-minute goal, one-minute praise and one-minute punishment.
The so-called one-minute goal is that everyone in the company clearly writes down their main goals and responsibilities on a piece of paper.
Each goal and its test criteria should be clearly expressed in 250 words, and one person can read it in one minute.
In this way, it is easy for everyone to clearly understand why and how to do it, and regularly check their work accordingly.
One minute of praise is human resource incentives. The specific method is that the manager of the company often spends a short time, picking out the right part of the work done by the staff to praise.
This can prompt each employee to know what they are doing and work harder, so that their behavior continues to develop in the perfect direction.
One-minute punishment means that something should be done well, but it is not done well.
The relevant personnel are first criticized in a timely manner, pointing out their errors, and then reminding him how you value him. He is dissatisfied at this time and place jobs.
In this way, people who do wrong can be willing to accept criticism, feel guilty, and pay attention to avoid the same mistake.
The “one minute” management rule is wonderful because it greatly shortens the management process and has an immediate effect.
A one-minute goal makes it easy for each employee to clarify their job responsibilities and strive to achieve their own work goals.
One-minute praise can make each employee work harder and make their behavior tend to be perfect.
One-minute punishment can make the wrongdoing. People are willing to accept criticism, prompting him to work more seriously in the future.
4. What is “Broken format” management?
In many managements of enterprises, the goal of reform and innovation is finally achieved through the management of personnel. Therefore, all developed companies in the world are actively implementing the reform of the personnel management system according to the changes in the internal competition situation of the enterprise to stimulate the creativity of employees.
In Japanese and Korean companies, in the past, the “year-old system” that used working years as promotion of staff ranks and salary standards has been adopted.
This system adapts to the requirements of employees in the period of rapid expansion of enterprises, and provides labor employment and development. opportunity.
Since the 1980s, these developed enterprises have entered a stage of low growth and relative stability.
The “year-old system” has been unable to satisfy the staff’s desire for promotion, which has reduced the vitality of enterprise organization personnel.
Since the early 1990s, developed companies in Japan and South Korea have begun to reform the personnel system. They vigorously promoted a new “broken-form” personnel system that determines the promotion and demotion of employees based on work capabilities and results.
The reform of the personnel system of the world’s largest enterprises focuses on fully tapping the potential of people.
In order to invigorate the personnel system to invigorate the organizational structure of the enterprise, pay attention to the cultivation and formation of the “strongman” mechanism within the enterprise, and form a competitive, hardworking, enterprising and pioneering new ambience.
5. What is “Harmony” management?
“Harmony” means that management must emphasize the cooperation of the individual and the whole, creating a high degree of harmony between the whole and the individual.
In management, European and American companies mainly emphasize individual struggle, and promote the harmonious use of different management.
What are the specific characteristics of Harmony Management?
(1) has both integrity and individuality
Every member of the enterprise has a sense of mission to the company. “I am the company” is a loud slogan in “harmonious” management.
Let go and let subordinates make decisions and manage themselves.
Modern management must implement a flexible business strategy to produce progress and innovation in volatility.
(4) complement each other
It is necessary to promote the complementary exchange of different views and practices so that the shortcomings in one case become the advantages in another.
(5) Individual dispersion and overall coordination
Units, groups, and individuals in an organization are all individuals in the whole. Individuals are decentralized and original, and form an overall image through coordination.
A harmonious, harmonious and vibrant atmosphere is reached between the enterprise and the individual, inspiring people’s internal drive and pride.
6. What is “walking” management?
This is an innovative management method popular in the world. It mainly refers to the corporate executives to observe the public opinion, understand the facts, and work together with the subordinates to create performance.
This management style has shown its advantages, such as:
(1) The subordinates in charge of the movement also followed
Toshiba Toshiba, the honorary chairman of the Federation of Japanese Economic Organizations, adopted the approach of “being a leader” and became a prestigious entrepreneur in Japan.
Before he took over the Japanese Toshiba Electric Company, Toshiba no longer enjoyed the reputation of “cradle of the electrical industry”. It’s getting worse.
After taking office, Shi Guangminfu visited the factory every day and visited Toshiba’s factories and enterprises in Japan.
In the early morning, he always arrived half an hour earlier than others, stood at the factory door, said hello to the workers, and took the lead in demonstrating.
Employees were affected by this atmosphere, which promoted mutual communication and boosted morale. Soon, Toshiba’s production returned to normal and has developed greatly.
(2) Small investment and large income
Moving management does not require too much capital and technology, it may increase the productivity of the enterprise.
(3) Visible management
That is to say, the top supervisor can reach the front line of production, meet and talk with the workers, hoping that the employees can give him opinions, know him, and even argue with him.
(4) On-site management
Why does Japan have the world’s best productivity? Some people think that it is based on the on-site management of the investigation. The supervisor went to the scene non-stop every day, and the subordinates had to lay down their lives with the gentleman!
(5) People who win popularity
Excellent corporate leaders often go to employees who are several levels below him to observe the public opinion, understand the truth, and listen to more “wrong” than just “good”.
Not only should they care about the work of their employees, to call out their names, but also their clothes, food and housing.
In this way, employees feel that supervisors attach importance to them and work naturally is very hard. With the support and efforts of employees, an enterprise will naturally prosper.
Ray Crocker, founder of McDonald ’s fast food restaurant in the United States, is one of the influential big entrepreneurs in the United States.
He doesn’t like to sit in the office all day.
Most of the time is used in “walking” management, that is, to his own Companies, departments walk around, look, listen and ask.
The company had faced a severe loss crisis for some time. Crocker found that one of the important reasons was that the managerial bureaucracy of the various functional departments of the company was prominent. Smoking and chatting. So Crocker came up with a “curious trick” and demanded that all managers’ chair backs be taken away, and the managers had to follow suit.
At first, many people called Crocker a lunatic. Soon everyone realized his “pain” and went out of the office to carry out “walking” management, keep abreast of the situation, solve problems on the spot, and finally turned the company into a profit. Promote the company’s survival and development.
What are the tasks and homework activities of human resource management?
1. What is the the task of human resource management?
The basic task of human resource management is to provide human resources guarantee for organizational development. Gary Desler summarizes it into six aspects:
i. Through planning, organization, deployment, recruitment, etc., to ensure a certain number and quality of labor and professional talents to meet the needs of enterprise development.
ii. Through various ways and means, plan to strengthen the training of existing employees and continuously improve their labor skills and business level.
iii. Combine each employee’s career development goals, select, use, evaluate, reward and punish employees, and try to play everyone’s role.
iv. Coordinate labor relations. Use various means to coordinate the relationship between managers and employees, employees and employers, and employees and employees to avoid unnecessary conflicts and contradictions. At the same time, we must take into account the interests of employees, protect employees’ personal rights from infringement, and ensure the reasonable implementation of labor laws.
v. Pay employees for their labor. Through job analysis and formulation of job descriptions, the functions and responsibilities of each job are clarified, and the work of those who undertake these responsibilities is promptly evaluated and paid.
vi. The growth of managers. The training and development of management personnel is one of the important contents of modern human resources management. It is necessary to ensure that the responsible persons in any department and any position have competent people to take over at any time.
2. What are the main activities of human resources management?
The main activities of human resources management are also called the functions of human resources management. Also, to refer to the specific work links that human resources function managers in the organization are engaged in.
The activities involved in organizations of different sizes are slightly different, especially in terms of job placement and division of labor in the human resources management department.
But from the most comprehensive perspective, the main activities of human resources management are as follows aspect.
i. Human resources planning
This process was developed from the original so-called manpower planning. The purpose of human resource planning is to coordinate the organization’s demand for the quantity and quality of employees with the effective supply of human resources.
Demand stems from the current status and forecast of the company ’s operations, while the supply side involves internal and external effective human resources.
Internal supply is the embodiment of the rationalization goal of the organization in recent years, involving the existing labor force and its potential to be realized.
Eexternal supply depends on the number of people outside the organization and is affected by many factors such as demographic trends, education development and labor market competitiveness.
The planning activities will outline the manpower needs of the relevant organizations and provide the required information for the following activities, such as personnel selection, training and rewards.
ii. Staff recruitment
Before hiring, do job analysis. In this process, we must carefully analyze the responsibilities of employees in a position and make a description of the position. Then, determine the capabilities that the candidate applying for the position should have.
The most suitable recruitment method should be selected according to the attractiveness of the candidates, such as newspaper advertisements, employment agencies, and talent exchange meetings.
3. Personnel selection
There are multiple methods, such as job application forms, interviews, testing and evaluation centers, etc., which can be used to select the best candidate from the candidates.
Usually, it is the one with more suitable retention conditions after the first step of screening.
This step is unnecessary when there are few candidates. In making selection decisions, some auxiliary means are needed, namely ideal candidate standards.
4. Performance evaluation
This is a method of evaluating employee performance based on set goals, but it is not widely accepted.
Personnel personnel are often only involved in formulating procedures, while process management is usually left to the department manager to complete.
Generally, the interview is arranged after the relevant personnel fill out a series of forms so that the relevant departments have a better understanding of their performance since the most recent interview (usually one year).
Performance can be quantified with pre-set indicators, and the results can be used to train employees, or in some cases, as a basis for commendation rewards.
This process is related to what kind of training system is established, which employees can participate in training and other issues.
There are various types of training, from on-the-job training to off-job learning and training courses provided by organizations outside the organization.
When the organization has plans for the development of core employees in the company, the relationship between training and development is obvious.
In this case, management People always try to make the company need to coordinate with the development of personal career.
6. Remuneration, reward and punishment
The scope of this work is very wide, including the determination of salary grades and levels, the formulation of benefits and other benefits, the standards and implementation of rewards and penalties, and the methods of salary calculation (such as job salary, piece rate salary or performance salary, etc.) subsidy.
7. Labor relations
The links involved in this part include signing labor agreements or employment contracts with employees, handling possible disputes between employees and companies or employees, formulating employees’ rights and obligations, handling various employee issues in accordance with labor laws, and formulating employee complaint systems.
Personnel supervisors should also provide advice on matters related to employment legislation and should be familiar with practical issues related to the applicability of legal provisions.
8. Employee communication and participation
Relevant information is communicated to employees through meetings and other forms, and a certain method is arranged to enable employees to contribute to the company’s decision-making (such as making proposals).
In certain circumstances, negotiation can also be included in such activities.
At present, more and more companies adopt a team-style management approach, like quality teams, so that employees have the opportunity to participate in decision-making activities related to their work.
9. Personnel file records
The personnel records of employees are usually centrally managed by the personnel department. These records include the initial application materials and the data added in the follow-up work that reflect the qualifications, achievements and potential of the employees.
Employee files are an important basis for personnel decisions.
With the popularity of computers, many companies have adopted human resource management information systems, using computers to manage personnel files.
3. What is the relationship between human resources management activities?
Human resources management activities are not separated and isolated from each other, but are interconnected and influence each other to form an organic system, as shown in the figure. Sources of human resources management activity diagram.
Diagram of human resource management activities
i. HRM Activities based on job analysis and evaluation
In this functional system, job analysis and job evaluation are a platform, and the implementation of other functions is basically based on this.
In human resource planning, when predicting the quantity and quality of human resources required by an organization, the basic basis is the job responsibilities, workload and qualifications of the position. These are the results of job analysis-the main content of the job description.
Predict the organization In the internal human resources supply, the information about the transfer or promotion of each position is used, which is also the content of the position manual.
When planning recruitment, the recruitment information published can be said to be a simple job description. The criteria for selection and selection mainly come from the qualification requirements in the job description.
The relationship between performance management and salary management and job analysis and job evaluation is more direct.
In performance management, the performance evaluation indicators of employees can be said to be determined entirely based on the job responsibilities of the position.
While in salary management, the determination of the employee’s salary grade is mainly based on the content of the job description.
In the process of training development, the determination of training needs should also be based on the requirements of job descriptions on business knowledge, work ability and work attitude. Simply put, comparing the actual situation of employees with these requirements, the difference between the two is to The content of the training.
ii. Focus on performance management
Let’s look at performance management again. This function is at the core of the entire system, and other functions must be more or less connected to it.
When predicting the supply of human resources within an organization, it is necessary to evaluate the work performance and work ability of existing employees, and these are all content of performance evaluation.
Planned recruitment is also related to performance appraisal.
We can compare the performance of employees from different channels and draw empirical conclusions therefrom to achieve the optimization of recruitment channels.
There is an interactive relationship between recruitment selection and performance management.
On one hand, we can improve the effectiveness of the selection process based on the results of performance evaluation. On the other hand, the selection results will also affect the performance of employees, effective selection results will help employees achieve good performance.
As mentioned earlier, the content of the training can be determined by comparing the actual situation of the employees with the requirements of the job description. So how can the actual situation of the employees be obtained? This requires performance appraisal, so there is a certain relationship between training development and performance management.
In addition, training development is also helpful for employees to improve performance.
At present, when designing a salary system, most enterprises divide employees’ wages into two parts: fixed wages and floating wages.
Fixed wages are mainly paid according to wage grades, and floating wages are related to employee performance levels. The result will have an important impact on employees’ wages, which establishes a direct link between performance management and compensation management.
Through employee relationship management, a harmonious atmosphere is established, which will help employees work harder, and thus help to achieve performance improvement.
iii. Other activities are interconnected
There is also a close relationship between other activities of human resources management. Recruitment selection should be based on recruitment.
Selection can not be carried out without someone applying.
The formulation of the recruitment plan is based on human resources planning, what kind of recruitment.
The number of employees and the number of employees recruited are the results of human resource planning; training development is also affected by the selection results.
If the selection results are not good and employees cannot meet the requirements of the position, the task of training new employees will be increased.
On the contrary, the training task for new employees is relatively light. The goal of employee relationship management is to improve the organizational commitment of employees, while training development and salary management are important means to achieve this goal.
There is also a connection between training development and salary management.
In addition to monetary compensation such as wages and benefits, employee compensation also includes various forms of non-monetary compensation, and training is an important form of it. Therefore, in a broad sense, Training development constitutes an integral part of remuneration.
What are the challenges faced by human resource management?
1. Challenges brought by human resources management environment
(1) Challenges brought by global economic integration
With the rapid development of information technology, the trend of global economic integration is becoming more and more obvious, and is moving forward at an unprecedented high speed.
With the emergence of regional cooperation organizations such as the European Union, North American Free Trade Area, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, etc., the boundaries between countries have become increasingly blurred.
This trend has spread rapidly around the world in the past few years, and the world economy has formed a whole that “pushes the whole body in motion.”
The Asian financial crisis and the “9.11” incident in the United States have fully demonstrated this point.
In today’s world, countries are not just competitions, but more importantly, they are interconnected, constrained, and interdependent.
The economic and social unrest in a region and a country will soon affect the global economy and even the stability and development of other countries.
This major change in the world economic landscape has had a huge impact on the global labor market.
With the gradual formation of global economic integration, as an inevitable product of global economic integration-multinational companies will have to face different political systems, legal norms and customs, as managers will often encounter different nationalities, different Cultural background, employees in different languages, how to complete the work better, how to communicate and communicate better, how to establish a perfect management system, etc.
These very real issues are placed in front of managers.
In China, with the vigorous development of China’s economy and China’s accession to the WTO, China has become a hot spot for investment by many multinational companies.
Chinese companies have to face not only domestic competitors, but also the challenges of global competitors. As an important part of enterprise management, human resources are also facing very fierce challenges. How do Chinese corporate managers ensure that their talents are not lost, and how do Chinese corporate managers maintain a long-term competitive advantage? This is a problem that every responsible manager should think about and solve.
The integration of the world economy has made the competition for talents and the internationalization of the flow of talents a reality.
Nowadays, the competition of entrepreneurs and the competition of popular technical talents has become increasingly fierce.
Only those companies that can attract talents, retain talents, and develop standardized talents and provide reasonable incentives can truly create a core competitive advantage.
(2) Challenges brought by technological progress
Generally speaking, technological progress will inevitably bring two results:
First, it can make the organization more powerful and more competitive.
Second, it changes the nature of work. For example, the popularity of the Internet has made it possible for many people to work from home.
However, the use of this high technology will inevitably place higher demands on the quality of employees.
Carrying out evaluation has become a new topic. In fact, with the advancement of technology, it has an important impact on all levels of the organization.
The role of labor-intensive work and general transactional work will be greatly weakened.
The role of technical, management and professional work will be reduced and will be greatly strengthened.
As a result, human resources management is facing a series of major changes such as structural adjustment.
(3) Challenges brought by the development of the organization
With the intensification of global economic integration, the organization as a basic unit of society has undergone great changes.
In today’s era, flexible and openness has become a trend of organizational development.
Increasing competition, the continuous shortening of product life cycles and rapid changes in external markets all require organizations to have strong flexibility and adaptability.
To participate in market competition, modern enterprises must be decentralized and participatory.
To develop new products and meet customer needs with cooperative groups, this puts forward new requirements for human resources management:
The human resources department of modern enterprises Must have good information communication channels.
The human resources management department of modern enterprises must be fair, just and transparent in the management of employees, and there must be more effective incentives for employees. Every manager in the organization must follow this.
The strategy attaches great importance to human resource management and development, so as to continuously adapt to the needs of organizational change.
(4) Challenges caused by changes in population structure
The change in population has obvious regional differences.
In developed countries in Europe and America, due to the influence of economic culture, ideology and other factors, the birth rate of the population is generally low, and the supply of human resources is relatively insufficient.
In Asian and African countries, because the birth rate is not effectively controlled, the birth rate of the population is generally high. The relative supply of resources exceeds demand.
The structure of the labor force has also undergone tremendous changes. Compared with Asian and African countries, the aging population of European and American countries is more prominent, while Asia has a surplus of labor.
The proportion of young labor is much higher than that of developed countries.
Relatively speaking, the shortage of talents is still a widespread problem in countries around the world. For example, in a long period of time, due to the lack of talent training strategies and market demand orientation, China has caused a serious imbalance in the structure of talents. Some professionals are surplus, and some professionals are seriously lacking, which has brought great challenges to China’s economic development. Big impact!
At the same time, employees’ awareness of their own value has also improved to a certain extent. This is reflected in the fact that employees have not only significantly improved their requirements on the material level.
More importantly, after the material level has been met, employees have a higher level of demand. They want to be respected and recognized. They want to participate in organizational management and realize their own value.
2. The challenge of human resource management’s own development
(1) Challenges for personalized development of enterprise employees
That is, enterprise employees are increasingly cross-cultural, diversified, differentiated, and personalized. Human resource management must provide personalized and customized human resource products / services and relationship management. How to properly balance the organization and employees in human resource management Personal interests.
(2) The challenge of improving the quality of work and life
That is, employees no longer only pursue wages and benefits, but are becoming more and more comprehensive and more comprehensive in all aspects of the company’s ability to meet their growing needs.
Human resources management must improve more comprehensive and thoughtful human resources products. /service.
(3) Challenges of job performance evaluation
That is, employee assessment and compensation are increasingly emphasized on the basis of job performance assessment, and form the function of combining performance, potential and teaching.
(4) The challenge of personnel quality
That is, the quality requirements of entrepreneurs (CEOs) and various management personnel are increasing day by day, and training, education, assessment, selection, and appointment are becoming more and more important.
(5) Challenges of career management
The main reason is that employees pay more and more attention to the realization of personal career development plans.
Enterprises must pay more attention to career management, create more success opportunities and development paths for employees, and obtain personal career satisfaction. It should know how to deal with the promotion of employees when the middle and upper positions of more mature enterprise organizations show saturation.
(6) Challenges for the development and changes of human resource elements
It is required that human resource management must continuously improve the predictability, strategic planning and long-term arrangement of human resource management.
(7) The challenge of department positioning
How does the human resources department play its role or show its special performance in many enterprise functional departments, what roles should human resources management play to ensure the effective use of human resources.
What is the difference between human resource management and personnel management?
Human resource management was generally known as personnel management before, and after human resource management, the concept of human capital management appeared.
Some people think that it is improper to treat people as resources or capital.
However, the ability of people to work during employment is the resources of the enterprise. But this kind of resources is extremely uncertain compared with other resources.
In the article “Trends of Enterprise Models and Human Capability Management”, He Daoyi proposed to replace human resource management and human capital management with human capability management, and divide human capacity management into two major parts:
One is the quantity and quality level Management, improve personnel capabilities, including the construction, maintenance and promotion of human capabilities.
Other is the management of the use and performance of human capabilities, and the improvement of the level of personnel capabilities, including the effective use of human capabilities and the effectiveness of human capabilities.
The two fundamental functions and values of personnel management centered on human capable management.
Modern human resource management is deeply influenced by the economic competition environment, technological development environment and national laws and government policies.
As a new and important management field that has emerged in the past 20 years, it is far beyond the scope of traditional personnel management. Specifically, there are some differences:
1. The characteristics of traditional personnel management are centered on “things”, only “things”, not “people”, only one aspect. But they are not centered on the whole and systematic nature of people and things, emphasizing the single aspect of “things” static control and management, the form and purpose of management is to “control people”.
While modern human resource management takes “people” as the core, emphasizing a dynamic, psychological and conscious adjustment and development.
The fundamental starting point of management is, “focus on people”, its management is attributed to the system optimization of people and things, which results in the best social and economic benefits.
2. Traditional personnel management sets people as a kind of cost and regards people as a kind of “tool”, focusing on investment, use and control.
The modern human resources management regards people as a kind of “resources”, focusing on output and development. It is a “tool”, you can control it and use it at will, it is a “resource”, especially when people are used as a resource, you have to be careful to protect it, guide it and develop it.
It is no wonder that some scholars put forward: attach importance to human resource management, and believe that the management philosophy of the 21st century is “only by truly liberating the person being managed can the manager himself be finally liberated.”
3. Traditional personnel management is a tool used by a functional department alone. It seems to have little relationship with other functional departments, but modern human resource management is very different from this.
The personnel department of each organization that implements the human resources management function has gradually become an important partner of the decision-making department, thereby enhancing the position of the personnel department in decision-making.
Human resource management involves every manager of the enterprise.
Modern managers should be clear: they are both the business manager of the department and the human resource manager of this department.
The main responsibility of the human resources management department is to formulate human resources planning and development policies, focusing on human potential development and training, while training other functional managers or managers to improve their management level and quality. Therefore, every manager of an enterprise not only completes the production and sales goals of the enterprise, but also cultivates a team of employees who can fight hard to achieve the organizational goals of the enterprise.
What is the difference between modern human resource management and traditional personnel management?
(1) Modern human resource management and traditional personnel management have different era backgrounds.
Traditional personnel management came into being with the emergence and development of social industrialization.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the personnel management department began to appear and experienced a development process from simple to complex.
In the early stages of social industrialization, the management of people was essentially the same as the management of material resources.
For a long period of time, despite the continuous development of the social economy and the continuous advancement of science and technology, the basic functions and functions of personnel management have not changed much. Only the division of labor is more refined than before, and the organization and implementation are more rigorous.
Human resource management has been developed and developed under the rapid development of social industrialization, the rapid development of science and technology, the increasing humanistic spirit, the strengthening of competition and cooperation, especially the historical conditions of a qualitative leap in the social economy.
It is generally believed that human resource management began to emerge after the 1970s.
From traditional personnel management to modern human resource management, the performance of this change in understanding people and material resources is that people are no longer an appendage of material resources, or that people are considered to be a special kind of material resources.
In the theory of human capital, some scholars advocate that the owner of human capital should rely on their property rights to obtain the sharing of residual profits of the enterprise, which is based on the particularity of human resources, because human resources are subjective and active.
In short, the different conditions of social, economic, and scientific and technological development determine the important difference between traditional personnel management and modern human resource management.
(2) Modern human resource management and traditional personnel management have different views on people.
Personnel management regards human labor as a kind of consumption or cost in the production process of the organization.
In other words, the cost of production includes the cost of materials, but also the cost of people.
This kind of cognition seems reasonable, but this cognition simply equates man with material resources, that is, there is no difference between man and material resources in concept. Therefore, traditional personnel management mainly focuses on how to reduce labor costs, select people correctly, improve the efficiency and productivity of personnel, and avoid an increase in labor costs.
Modern human resource management regards people as “human capital”, which can create higher value through effective management and development, and can bring long-term benefits to the organization, that is, human capital is capital that can add value.
The fundamental difference between this kind of recognition and the traditional personnel management’s understanding of people is that: traditional personnel management regards people as a factor for passively adapting to production.
Modern human resources management regards people as actively reforming the material world and promoting production development, Also, as active capital that creates material, spiritual wealth, and value can add value.
(3) The basic functions of modern human resource management and traditional personnel management are different.
The functions of traditional personnel management are basically specific affairs, such as the management of recruitment, selection, evaluation, personnel turnover, salary, benefits, personnel files, etc., and the implementation of personnel regulations.
In general, the traditional personnel management functions are specific and technical affairs management functions.
The functions of modern human resource management are quite different, it is a relatively complex social system engineering.
Modern human resources management not only has strategic management functions, such as planning, control, forecasting, long-term development, performance management, training strategy, etc. But it also has technical management functions, such as selection, assessment and evaluation, salary management, personnel mobility management, etc.
In general, the functions of modern human resource management are highly systematic, strategic and time-remote, and its management horizon is much broader than traditional personnel management.
(4) The position of modern human resource management and traditional personnel management in the organization is essentially different.
Traditional personnel management is difficult to involve global and strategic issues in the organization due to the transactional and tactical limitations of its content. Therefore, it is often regarded as a purely service work that does not require specific professional skills.
The former president of Qixi Company once said that the personnel manager is often regarded as a grinning, good-natured person, whose job is to organize some activities and seek some welfare for everyone.
Modern human resource management is more strategic, systematic and futuristic. It shifts from administrative transactional employee control to organizational strategy-oriented, a series of developments around human resources including planning, development, incentives and evaluation.
The purpose of a streamlined management process is to improve the organization’s competitiveness.
Modern human resources management is separated from the framework of pure business management and technical management activities.
According to the strategic objectives of the organization, the planning and strategy of human resources are formulated accordingly, which becomes the decisive content in organizational strategy and strategic management.
The main feature of this transformation is that the head of the human resources department appears in the organization’s top leaders, and some people are appointed as the top leaders of the organization.
Classical Theory of Human Resource Management in the 20th Century
I. What is Taylor’s scientific management theory (1903)?
Taylor (Frederick W. Taylor, 1856-1915), an American classical management scientist, whose main works are “Principles of Scientific Management” (1911) and “Scientific Management” (1912).
The core of scientific management:
- Management must be scientific and standardized
- To promote spiritual revolution, the interests of both employers and employees are the same.
The result of implementing scientific management is to increase production efficiency.
High efficiency is the basis for employees and employers to achieve common prosperity. Therefore, Taylor believes that only scientific and standardized management instead of traditional experience management is the means to achieve the highest efficiency.
Scientific management content in HRM:
1. Conduct motion research, determine operating procedures and motion specifications, determine labor time quotas, and improve scientific operating methods to improve work efficiency.
2. Make scientific choices for workers and train them to use standard operating methods to enable workers to grow on the job.
3. Formulate scientific technological processes to standardize machines, equipment, processes, tools, materials and working environment as much as possible.
4. Implement piece-rate wages, excess labor, and excessive remuneration.
5. Separation of management and labor.
Successful case of the application of scientific management theory:
Using Gantt charts for planning control, the world ’s first Ford automobile production line was created. A mechanized large industry was realized.Labor productivity was greatly improved, and high efficiency, low cost and the situation of proper wages and high profits.
II. What is the study of the movement of the Gilbreth couple (1907)?
Frank Gilbreth (Frank B. Gilbreth, 1868-1924), the father of American action research.
Mrs. Gilbreth, the first doctor of psychology in American history, is respected as the “first lady of management” in the United States.
Main works: “Motion Research” (1911), “Management Psychology” (1917), “Fatigue Research” (1919), “Time Research” (1920).
They use observation, recording and analysis methods to conduct action research to determine standard process actions and improve production efficiency.
At the same time, they developed production flow charts and program charts, which are still widely used today. They advocate that through movement research, workers ‘self-management consciousness can be developed.
They pioneered fatigue research, and their impact on protecting workers’ health and improving productivity continues to this day.
III. What is Weber’s Organization Theory (1911)?
Max Weber (Max Weber, 1864-1920), German classical management theorist, is respected as “the father of organization theory”.
Main works: “Protestant Ethics and Spirit of Capitalism”, “General Economic History”, “Theory of Social and Economic Organization”, etc.
Weber believes that there are three kinds of power in society, one is traditional power, which is owned according to traditional practices or hereditary inheritance.
The second is extraordinary power, which originates from nature worship or following.
The third is legal power, the power prescribed by law or system.
For an economic organization, it should be based on reasonable and legal power to ensure the organization’s continuous and lasting business objectives.
Rules and regulations are the guarantee for the benign operation of the organization and the basis of the legal power in the organization. The ideal bureaucratic organization model constructed by Weber is:
1. The organization is created according to legal procedures, with clear objectives and complete rules and regulations.
2. The structure of the organization is a hierarchical control system. The people in the organization exercise their powers according to their positions and formal work responsibilities.
3. The person-to-person relationship is a person-to-work relationship, not a person-to-person relationship.
4. According to job requirements, openly select suitable talents.
5. A reasonable division of labor and professional training to improve production efficiency.
6. Pay according to position and contribution, and establish a promotion reward and punishment system to improve workers’ professionalism and sense of accomplishment.
Weber rationally and creatively proposed the scientific organization theory and organization criterion of administrative organization, which is his greatest contribution in the history of management thought.
IV. What is Fayol’s general management theory (1916)?
Henri Fayol (Henri Fayol, 1841-1925), French classical management theorist, together with Weber and Taylor, is known as the three pioneers of Western classical management theory.
He is respected as the originator of the school of management process.
The representative work is “Industrial Management and General Management” (1916).
Fayol put forward the five functions of management: that is, management is the five functions of planning, organization, command, coordination and control, and put forward 14 management principles:
- Division of labor
- Power and responsibility
- Unified command
- Personal interests
- Overall interests
- Personnel compensation
- Ppersonnel stability
Fayol’s general management theory condenses the general principles of management, and it is still used as a guide for our daily management.
V. What is Mayo’s interpersonal relationship theory (1933)?
George Elton Myao (George Elton Myao, 1880-1949), an American behavioral scientist originally from Australia, founder of the theory of interpersonal relationship. Main works: “People in Organization” and “Management and Morale”.
Mayo conducted the famous Hawthorne experiment for nine years in the Hawthorne factory of American Western Electric Company, which really opened the prelude to the study of the behavior of people in the organization.
The original intention of Hawthorne experiment was to try to find ways to improve external conditions and environment to increase labor productivity. But the results showed that the fundamental factor affecting productivity is not external working conditions.
However, workers’ own factors and the sense of harmony and security accepted by the group.
Mayo’s “interpersonal relationship theory” pointed out that workers are social people, not purely economic people.
There are informal organizations in enterprises, and it is necessary to pay attention to maintaining a balance with formal organizations.
Improving worker satisfaction is the first priority to improve labor productivity Conditions, high satisfaction come from the reasonable satisfaction of both material and spiritual needs.
VI. What is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (1943)?
Abraham H. Maslow (Abraham H. Maslow, 1908-1970), an American psychologist, put forward the theory of human need hierarchy. Representative work: “Human Motivation Theory”.
Maslow pointed out that the hierarchy of human needs is shown in Figure:
People’s needs are sorted according to importance and hierarchy. After the low-level needs are met, people will pursue high-level needs.
VII. What is McGregor’s Humanity Hypothesis and Management Style Theory (1960)?
Douglas McGregor (Douglas M. Mc Gregor, 1906-1964), a famous American behavioral scientist. As the “Humanity Aspects of Enterprises” (1957), the representative proposed the famous theory X-theory Y.
McGregor called the traditional management point of view X theory, and put forward the assumptions and management methods of human nature, and he put forward the Y theory relative to the X theory.
VIII. What is Hertzberg’s two-factor incentive theory (1966)?
Frederick Herzberg (Frederick Herzberg), American behavioral scientist. His main works are: “Incentives for Work”, “Work and Humanity”, “Management Options: Is it more effective or more humane?” Wait! The two-factor theory is his main achievement.
Herzberg believes that it can bring a positive attitude to work.
Most of the factors of satisfaction and motivation are factors of work content or work itself. This is called motivating factors, such as sense of achievement, recognition by colleagues, boss appreciation and more.
There is sense of responsibilities or greater room for growth.
What can make employees feel dissatisfied belongs to the working environment or working relationship, called health factors, such as company policies, management measures, supervision, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, wages and benefits.
The two-factor theory’s inspiration to managers is: we should pay attention to the importance of factors in the work content of employees, especially to enrich the work and meet the needs of employees in many ways.
IX. What is Wei Lian’s Z Theory (1981)?
Wei Lianda is an American Japanese scholar, represented as “Z Theory” (1981).
Z theory believes that the success of all enterprises is inseparable from trust, sensitivity and intimacy. So it is entirely possible to conduct democratic management based on the principles of frankness, openness and communication.
What is the process of establishing a Z-type organization?
- Cultivate the integrity and kindness of everyone.
- Leaders and managers jointly formulate new management strategies and clarify common business objectives.
- Implement the company’s goals through efficient collaboration and flexible incentives.
- Develop communication skills of managers.
- Stable employment system
- Reasonable and long-term assessment and promotion system.
- Job rotation, training and expanding the career development of employees.
- Encourage employees and trade unions to participate in company management and expand the scope of participation.
- Establish a comprehensive overall relationship between employees and the organization.
X. What is Peter Singhi’s Learning Organization Theory (1990)?
Peter M. Senge is the founder of the “learning organization theory” in the United States and the most outstanding new management guru in the contemporary era.
His representative work is “Fifth Practice-The Art and Practice of Learning Organizations”.
Learning organization theory believes that the source of sustainable development of an enterprise is to improve its overall competitive advantage and improve its overall competitiveness.
The truly outstanding enterprise in the future is an organization that makes all employees fully devoted and good at learning and continuous learning-a learning organization.
By brewing the working atmosphere and corporate culture of a learning organization, it guides employees to keep learning, making progress, and constantly adjusting concepts, so that the organization has a more enduring vitality.
What are the characteristics of learning organizations?
1. All members have common wishes and ideals.
2. Good at continuous learning.
3. Flat organization structure.
4. Employee autonomy and conscious management.
5. Balance between employees’ family and career.
6. The new role of leader is changed to designer, servant and teacher.