Tests Types and Treatment of Her pes Virus

Types Tests and Treatment of Herpes Virus or Viruses

Herpes virus is a group of enveloped DNA viruses with similar biological characteristics and is classified as Herpesviridae. A total of more than 100 types have been found, which can be divided into three major categories (subfamily) of α, β, and γ. It infects a wide range of hosts, mainly invading the skin, mucous membranes and nervous tissues, and seriously affecting the health of humans and other animals.

Virus Name : Herpes Virus

Classification: Herpesviridae

Attribution:DNA Virus

Species:100+

Invasion site:Skin, mucous membranes and nerve tissue

 

Table of Content

1. Introduction

2. 8 herpes viruses

3. Immunity

4. Biological traits

▪ Morphological structure

▪ Genetic structure

▪ Training characteristics

▪ Typing

5. Microbiological examination

▪ Virus isolation and identification

▪ Antibody detection

▪ DNA test

6. Pathogenicity

▪ Primary infection

▪ Latent infection and relapse

▪ Congenital infection

▪ Carcinogenic relationship

7. Herpes virus treatment

▪ Systemic treatment

▪ Topical Therapy

▪ Chinese medicine treatment

8. Nursing

 

Types of Herpes Viruses

Herpes viruses are a type of enveloped virus with a double-stranded DNA genome.

Herpes viruses are classified into:

  • Aalpha herpes virus
  • Beta herpes virus
  • Gamma herpes virus
  • Other herpes viruses

Representative alpha herpes viruses include:

  1. Herpes simplex virus type 1/2 (HSV-1 / 2), which can infect humans, Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and pseudo-infected animals.
  2. Rabies virus (Pseudorabies virus (PRV), chicken Marek’s disease virus (MDV), etc.

Beta herpes virus is mainly human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Gamma herpes virus (such as Epstein-Barr virus), the target cell of infection is lymphoid cells, which can cause lymphoplasia.

Herpes virus infects a wide range of hosts and can infect humans and other vertebrates.

There are currently 8 types of herpes viruses that can infect humans, including:

  1. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1)
  2. Hherpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2)
  3. Chicken pox -Varicella zoster virus (VZV)
  4. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
  5. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)
  6. Human herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6)
  7. Human herpes virus 7 (HHV-7)
  8. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)

Human herpesviruses can be divided into three subfamilies according to the differences in genomic sequence and structure and physical and chemical properties: alpha herpes virus subfamily, beta herpes virus subfamily and gamma herpes virus subfamily.

 

The word Herpes is derived from Greek and means snake-like crawling. Herpes virus (HSV) refers to herpes zoster virus.

Herpes viruses in reptiles, fish, frogs and humans have similar morphology, but the antigenicity, G + C content in genomic DNA, and the sequence of viral DNA are all different.

The virus particle consists of 162 porous particles arranged into a polyhedral capsid, and has a lipid envelope of more than 20 polypeptides.

The viral genome is a linear double-stranded DNA molecule with a length of 140 000 bp.

 

8 Types of herpes virus

Herpes virus mainly invades tissues derived from ectoderm, including skin, mucous membranes and nerve tissue. There are various infection sites and diseases caused, and there is a tendency for latent infection, which seriously threatens human health.

1. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (human herpes virus type 1).

2. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (human herpes virus type 2).

3. Varicella zoster virus (human herpes virus type 3).

4. Epstein-Barr virus (human herpes virus type 4).

5. Cytomegalovirus (human herpesvirus 5).

6. Human herpes virus type 6.

7. Human herpes virus type 7.

8. Human herpes virus type 8.

 

Common appearances after infection are:
  • Ganglion glands, renal lymphoid tissues and lymphoid tissue herpe
  • Lip, eye, and brain infection
  • Genital herpes and chicken pox
  • Shingles mononucleosis, eye, kidney, brain and congenital infection Infectious mononucleosi
  • Burkitt lymphoma, nasopharyngeal cancer, infantile rash and other conditions such as unknown abdominal pain.

 

Immunity

Neutralizing antibodies can appear in the blood about 1 week after the primary HSV infection, reaching a peak in 3-4 weeks, which can last for many years.

Neutralizing antibodies inactivate the virus outside the cells, which has a certain effect on preventing the virus from spreading through the bloodstream and limiting the course of the disease. However, it cannot eliminate the latent infection virus and prevent recurrence. In the body’s immunity against HSV infection, cellular immunity plays an important role.

NK cells can specifically kill HSV-infected cells; with the participation of antibodies, mediating ADCC effects can also lyse HSV-infected cells.

Cytotoxic T cells and various Lymphatic molecules (such as interferon) are also of great significance in the fight against HSV infection.

 

What are the Biological Traits of Herpes Virus?

Morphology

Herpes simplex virus (HSv) has a spherical shape. The complete virus consists of a core, a capsid, a Tegument, and a capsule. The core contains double-stranded DNA and is wound into a filament reel. The capsid is icosahedron symmetrical and consists of 162 shell particles with a diameter of 100 nm.

The outer layer of the capsid is covered by a membrane with uneven thickness. The outermost layer is a typical lipid bilayer capsule with protrusions. Enveloped viruses are 150-200 nm in diameter.

The capsule surface contains gb, gC, gD, gE, gG, and gH glycoproteins, which adsorbs / penetrates cells with the virus (gB gC gD ge), controls the release of virus from the nuclear membrane (gH), and induces cell fusion (gb gC gD gH). It also induces neutralizing antibodies (gd is the strongest) and cytotoxicity (all known HSV glycoproteins).

 

Gene structure

The HSV genome is a linear DNA molecule consisting of covalently linked long (L) and short (S) segments. Each fragment contains a single sequence and inverted repeats. There are 72 genes in the genome, encoding a total of 70 different proteins.

Among them, in addition to the characteristics of 24 proteins, 18 types of encoded proteins constitute viral DNA binding proteins and various enzymes. They are involved in viral DNA synthesis and packaging. And nucleotide metabolism.

More than 30 different proteins constitute viral structural proteins (such as capsid protein and envelope protein), which play an important role in protecting the DNA of HSV, as well as the pathogenic role of HSV and inducing the immune response of the body.

 

Training Characteristics

HSV can grow in a variety of cells. Commonly used cell lines include BHK cells, Vero cells, Hep-2 cells, etc. When the virus was isolated for the first time, the primary milk rabbit kidney cells and human embryo lung cells were more sensitive.

HSV infects a wide range of animals. Inoculation in the brain of a variety of animals can cause herpes encephalitis. Inoculation in mice can cause fatal infections in the central nervous system.

Inoculation in rabbits can cause herpes keratitis in rabbits. Cervicitis and cervical cancer. Inoculated chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane formed proliferative white plaque.

 

Typing

HSV has two serotypes, namely HSV-1 and HSV-2. The nucleotide sequences of the two types of viruses have 5% homology. There is a common antigen and a specific antigen between the types. Type-specific monoclonal antibodies can be used as ELISA. DNA restriction analysis and DNA hybridization methods to distinguish types.

 

What are the Microbiological examination or Herpes Virus Tests?

Virus isolation and identification

Virus isolation and culture is a reliable basis for the clinical diagnosis of herpes virus infection. Can collect blisters, cerebrospinal fluid, corneal scrape, saliva and other specimens of skin and genital lesions, inoculate human diploid fibroblast cell line WI38 and other passage cell lines such as Vero, BHK, etc., after 24-48 hours .

The cells will appear swelling, round, cell fusion and other lesions. Then use HSV-1 and HSV-2 monoclonal antibodies for immunofluorescence staining or DNA restriction endonuclease map analysis to determine.

 

Antibody detection

Methods commonly used for antibody detection include complement binding tests, neutralization tests, immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, etc., which are mostly used clinically for the diagnosis of acute infections and the detection of organ transplant patients, as well as epidemiological investigations. If used for the diagnosis of acute infection, the serum in the acute phase and the recovery phase should be taken, and the IgG and IgM in the serum should be detected at the same time.

 

DNA test

Take the diseased tissue or cells, extract the viral DNA, and hybridize with the labeled HSV DNA probe or use PCR to detect the gV glycoprotein gene of HSV-1 or HSV-2 to determine whether it is HSV infection. This method has been used to diagnose patients with suspected HSV encephalitis.

 

Pathogenic

Patients and health carriers are the source of infection, transmitted mainly through direct close contact and sexual contact. HSV invades the body through a variety of routes including the oral cavity, respiratory tract, genital tract mucosa and damaged skin.

Human infections are very common, with an infection rate of 80 to 90%. A common clinical manifestation is a localized herpes on the mucous membranes or skin. Occasionally, severe systemic diseases can occur, affecting the internal organs.

 

Primary infection

Within 6 months, infants usually obtain antibodies from the mother’s placenta through the placenta. About 90% of the initial infections are asymptomatic and mostly recessive.

The primary infection of HSV-1 usually occurs between the ages of 1 and 15 years. Gingular stomatitis is common. Herpes occur in the cheek mucosa and gums. After rupture, they are covered with a layer of necrotic tissue. In addition, it can cause cold sores, eczema-like herpes, herpes keratitis and herpes encephalitis.

Genital herpes is more commonly caused by HSV-2 after the age of 14, and is relatively severe, with severe local pain, accompanied by fever, general discomfort and lymphadenitis.

 

Latent infection and relapse

After the primary infection of HSV to develop immunity, part of the virus is cleared, and part of the virus can reach the trigeminal ganglion (HSV-1) and spinal ganglion (HSV-2) cells or the surrounding astrocytes along the myelin sheath.

It persists in a latent state and is in relative balance with the body without causing clinical symptoms. When the body has fever, cold, sun, menstruation, and emotional stress, it uses pituitary or adrenocortical hormones and suffers from certain bacterial and viral infections. The latent virus activates and proliferates along the nerve fiber cord to the sensory nerve endings and to nearby epidermal cells. Continue to proliferate within the body, causing recurrent localized herpes.

 

It is characterized by each recurrence often occurring in the same site. Groups of small herpes most commonly appear at the junction of the skin and mucous membranes between the lips and nose. Herpes keratitis and herpes cervicitis can also occur repeatedly.

 

Congenital infection

HSV affects embryonic cell mitosis through placenta infection, and is prone to miscarriage, congenital diseases such as fetal malformation and mental retardation. About 40 to 60% of newborns can be infected when they pass the birth canal infected with HSV-2, and they develop high fever, dyspnea and central nervous system disease. Among them, 60 to 70% of infected newborns can die as a result. Survivors have sequelae Up to 95%.

 

Carcinogenic relationship

Some investigations have shown that HSV-1 and HSV-2 may be related to lip cancer, vulvar cancer, and cervical cancer, respectively.

In particular, HSV-1 has been paid attention to as the cause of cervical cancer, but recent studies have shown that human papillomavirus and the Cancer is directly related, so the cause of cervical cancer may be complicated.

 

What is the Treatment of Herpes Virus?

The disease is self-limiting and can heal in about 1-2 weeks. The purpose of treatment is to prevent the next relapse. There is no effective medicine for this disease at present. The principle of treatment is to shorten the course of disease, prevent secondary infection and reduce recurrence.

 

What is the Systemic Treatment for Herpes Virus?

The first principle of treatment is to make the infected HSV unable to activate or even destroy the virus. The second is to regulate the immunity and prevent recurrence. Acyclovir may be administered orally, orally, Livstrovir, intramuscular injection of interferon, and intramuscular injection of interleukin II.

l. Acyclovir (ACV)

It is currently recognized as the drug of choice. The method of use should be targeted at different situations of GH.

(1) First-onset GH: oral ACV 200mg, 5 times a day for 7 days; or intravenous infusion of ACV 5m batch 3 times a day for 5d-7d.

(2) Recurrent GH: oral ACV 200mg, 5 times a day; or 800m lying twice a day, even for 5 days; if treatment is started immediately after symptoms appear, some patients may not have typical symptoms. When recurrence is frequent, ACV2OOmg can be taken orally 3 times a day for 6-12 months.

(3) Immune-suppressed patients: For HIV-infected patients, GH is administered orally at a dose of 40 mg orally, three to five times a day. If the condition is serious, 400mg / kg each time, intravenous drip, every 8hl times, until healed.

(4) Herpes pruritus: ACV 200mg orally, 5 times a day, 7d-lOd.

(5) HSV Proctitis: Oral ACV 400mg, 5 times a day, can shorten the course of the disease. For immunocompromised or severe cases, intravenous ACV 5mg / (kg · 8h) can be administered.

(6) Neonatal HSV: Intravenous infusion of ACV 30mg / (kg · d), or arabinose 30mg / (kg · d), is often used for a total of 10d-14 days.

 

2. Interferon (IFN)

Primary GH: intramuscular or subcutaneous injection, 1 million U to 3 million U for adults, small / L 50,000 U / (kg · d), 1 week to 2 weeks.

Relapsed GH: intramuscular or subcutaneous injection, 3 million U-6 million U for adults, 100,000 U / (kg ‘for children

 

3. Ribavirin (ribavirin)

Inhibits the replication and synthesis of various viral DNA and RNA.

(l) Primary GH and AIDS with HSV infection: intramuscular injection of 15 mg / (kg · d).

(2) Relapsed GH: Oral 0.49, 4 times a day, changed to 0.4 lying twice a day after 3 days, a total of Sd.

 

4. Sodium phosphate: Selectively inhibits herpes virus-induced DNA-dependent DNA polymerase. Intravenous infusion of 40mg-60mg, once every 8 hours, for 4 days. Only used for individual severe GH, especially caused by acyclovir-resistant HSV strain. Side effects include nephrotoxicity and disorders of calcium and phosphorus metabolism.

5. Indomethacin: Orally, 25m lying 3 times a day.

6. Chromopolymyocytes: intramuscular injection, 2mg twice weekly-3 times.

7. gD-2 vaccine: the expression of recombinant HSV-2 glycoprotein in CHO cells, the specific antibodies and neutralizing antibodies induced, which are equivalent to or exceed the levels produced by GH patients. Inoculated with gD-2100b9, repeated once every 2 months. Compared with controls, recurrence was significantly reduced, and gD-2 vaccine could reduce symptoms and prevent infection.

8. Monoclonal antibody therapy is a promising new method. HSV glycoprotein vaccines and recombinant subunit vaccines make the body produce antibodies and enhance cellular effects, and are effective in eliminating the latentness and initial attacks and recurrences after HSV infection.

 

What is the Topical Therapy for Herpes Virus?

The principle is to dry, converge, protect the affected area and prevent secondary infection. It can be washed externally at pH4, a weakly acidic female care solution, or zinc oxide ointment or mud ointment, comfrey ulcer ointment, 0.5% neomycin ointment, or 0.25% to 0.1% herpetic net (IDU) ointment.

 

What is Chinese Treatment for Herpes Virus?

1. Snake soup: 30 grams of honeysuckle, 10 grams of purple grass, 10 grams of scutellaria baicalensis, 60 grams of isatis root and big green leaf each for decoction, 1 dose per day.

If it is painful, you can add 10 grams each of frankincense and myrrh, and if it is very itchy, you can add 10 grams each of white moss skin and earthworm. You can also use Qilisan outside, melt with boiling water, and then apply the affected area, 2-3 times a day.

2. Qingdai powder amount, and then add sesame oil and then make a paste, and when applied to the affected area, change the medicine once a day.

3. Banlangen 30g, Equisetum spp. 30g, and then decoction about 200mL for external washing, twice a day, and then 30 minutes each time.

4. Glauber’s salt 100g, then mix it into 300mL of boiling water, and then use it to wash the affected part after cooling down.

5. The amount of fresh lobelia, and then wash it like mud, then apply it to the affected area, cover with gauze, change the dressing 1-2 times a day.

6. wild chrysanthemum 30g, cork 30g, purslane 30g, and then decoction about 200mL for external washing, twice a day, 15 minutes each wash, has a very good effect.

 

What are the Precautions against Herpes virus?

1. During the treatment period, avoid eating spicy food and drinking is strictly prohibited.

2. Pay attention to rest to prevent fatigue and abrasion of the affected area.

3. Prohibit sexual life, avoid congestion of the genitals, aggravate the disease, or infect him or her.

4. It is forbidden to use in the case of ulcer, pus, or discoloration in the affected area.

5. After rehabilitation, use a pH 4 weakly acidic female care solution for daily private care. Another need to continue to avoid spicy food and alcohol for three months, three months after the limit of six months, normal diet after six months. Patients with genital herpes need to continue to ban sexual life for three months after rehabilitation, and have limited sexual intercourse within six months after three months. After six months, they can have normal sexual life and normal fertility.

 

Nursing

For the care of genital herpes, we must first prevent its infection. Especially in summer, the temperature is high and sweating is high. With local scratching, local infection is easy to occur. It is necessary to wash the genital area with pH 4 weak acid female care solution every day of. When a local infection occurs, clean the area with a feminine care solution in a timely manner, or use berberine 1 tablet in 200 mL boiling water, and wash the affected area after cooling.

Secondly, to avoid local scratching, do not use drugs that are too irritating. Pay attention to prevent colds, colds, and fatigue after illness to reduce recurrence. No intercourse during treatment.

In normal times, you must keep exercising, and keep a happy mood, and your daily life must be regular. In addition, you should stay in bed during treatment, pay attention to nutrition, and wear clean and soft cotton underwear. If you have pain that affects sleep, you can also take some sedative painkillers.

 

 

 

 

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NB The write-up is based on the most prevalent media information and is not a medical advice. Consult your Authorized Cardiologist for any Medical Treatment.

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