Hardware shown of clinical Dental Implants for dental fixations, also called dental fixture or Endosseous Implant

Endosseous Implant – Fixture or Dental Implants

Dental Implant Definition and Meaning: Dental implant is a medical method (also referable as endosseous implant or fixture) in which dental specialists take a pure titanium metal with high human bone compatibility and make it into a cylindrical or other tooth-like shape through fine planning. Dental surgeons implant it through a small operation without teeth into the alveolar bone. The biological technique of osseointegration using crown or bridge (orthodontic anchor) forms the base of dental implants where materials such as titanium form an intimate bond with the bone.

For determination of success and its long lasting state, while using osseointegrated dental implants healthy bone and gingiva are necessary. Some pre-prosthetic procedures such as sinus lifts or gingival grafts are sometimes necessary to recreate ideal bone and gingiva. This is as possibly both can atrophy after tooth extraction.


After this above summary, let us consider details:




  1.  Medical Use
  2.  Composition
  3.  Technique
  4.  Planning General considerations for Dental Implants
  5.          Bisphosphonate drugs for Teeth Implants
  6.          Biomechanical consideration
  7.          Main procedures for surgery
  8.           Further procedures for surgery


  •                          Single teeth, bridges and fixed denture
  •                         Prosthetic procedures for removable denture
  •            Maintenance

Dental Implants PPT Slideshare (for quick overview)
Risks and Complications

  1.                         During surgery
  2.                         First six month
  3.             Long term Results



Medical uses of Dental Implants or Fixture

Supporting dental prosthetics is the primary use of dental implants. Modern dental implants use osseointegration.  The biological process in which bone fuses firmly to the surface of particular metals like titanium and certain ceramics. Implant and bone integration can support physical loads without failure for decades.


Dentists first secure an implant abutment to the implant with an abutment screw for single tooth replacement. Then the dentists link a crown (the dental prosthesis) to the abutment during the manufacture with dental cement, a tiny screw, or merge as one piece with the abutment. Similarly, dentists can also use dental implants in the form of a fixed bridge or removable dentures to maintain various tooth dental prosthesis.


An implant-supported bridge (or fixed denture) is a set of dental implant-secured teeth that prevents the user from removing the prosthetic. Bridges usually attach to even more than one implant and as anchor points can also connect to teeth. The number of teeth typically exceeds the anchor points with the teeth straight above the implants referable with the name as abutments. Teeth between abutments are referable as pontics. Dentists attach bridges backed by implants, to implant abutments, in the same manner as a substitute for a single tooth implant. A fixed bridge may substitute as few as two teeth (also known as a partial fixed denture). This bridge may stretch to replace a whole arch of teeth (also known as a complete fixed denture). We know the prosthesis to be in fixation in both cases because the denture wearer cannot remove it.


Removable Implant

A removable implant assisted denture (also an overdenture backed by an implant) is a form of dental prosthesis that is not continuously held in location. The wearer can disconnect the dental prosthesis from the implant abutments with finger pressure. The design of abutment is such that allows its attachment with analog adapters on the base of the dental prosthesis as a tiny connector (a button, ball, bar, or magnetar). For example, dentists can apply facial prosthetics to implants positioned in the facial bones to correct facial deformations (for cancer treatments or accidents). The dentists can use the implants depending on the scenario to keep a heavy or removable prosthetic that replaces the portion of the face.


In orthodontics, tiny dental implants called temporary anchoring devices can help motion by providing anchor points to generate forces. We know the dental implants as as temporary anchoring devices. For teeth to move, we need to apply force towards the required motion. The effect stimulates the cells in the periodontal ligament to reshape the bones. This is in order to remove and add bones to the space formed by the tooth. A point of anchor (something that does not move) is necessary to create a force on a tooth.

Since implants do not have a periodontal ligament, on application of pressure, bone rehabilitation will not be stimulate. They are ideal orthodontic points. Typically, orthodontic motion implants are small and not fully osseointegrated, so they are readily removable after treatment.

Dental Implant Chart showin the technicalities of the procedure by dentist


Composition of Dental Implant

A typical standard implant comprises of a rough or soft surface titanium screw (similar to a tooth root). Most dental implants are produced of commercially pure titanium. These are accessible in four grades based on the quantity of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and iron. Cold work-hardened CP4 (maximum impurity boundaries of N.05%, C.10%, H.015%, Fe.50%, and O.40%) is the most frequently used titanium in implants. Grade 5 titanium, titanium 6AL-4V, (meaning the titanium alloy comprising 6% aluminum and 4% vanadium alloy) is slightly harder than CP4. This harder one is mainly used in the sector for screws and abutments.

The surface texture (through etching, anodizing or diversified medium-blasting) of most contemporary dental implants also increases the surface region and the implant’s osseointegration potential. This is whether CP over 85 percent of titanium or titanium alloy is formed by a titanium biocompatible oxide surface layer or veneer which contains other metals which prevent them from contacting the bone.

 Ceramic implants are in single-piece or two-piece structures (either cemented or scraped in abutments). These can reduce the risk of peri-implant illnesses. However, long-lasting achievement rates information is lacking. 



Planning & General considerations for Teeth Implants – Technique

Dental implant planning focuses on the patient’s overall health, the local health status of mucous membranes and masks. It also focuses on the form, size and location of jaws, adjoining and opposing teeth. The implants are not placed under any health circumstances. Although certain circumstances can boost the danger of insufficiency. For those suffering from bad oral hygiene, heavy smokers and diabetics, a form of gum disease that impacts implants known by peri-implantitis is more at risk. This increases the likelihood of a longer-term failure. The risk of early implant failure can improve over the long-term use of steroids, osteoporosis and other conditions that influence bones.

Radiation therapy has been suggested to impact implant survival adversely. However, in national research released in 2016, the patient’s oral hygiene measures and periodic follow-ups for complications found highly durable dental implants installed in the irradiated region of the oral cavity.


Bisphosphonate drugs for Teeth Implants

Implants must take unique consideration in use for bone builders, such as bisphosphonates and anti-RANKL medicines. This is, as they are linked with an implant disease known as MRONJ. Medications are changing bone turnover, which is believed to endanger individuals with minor oral surgery from bone death. The impacts of drugs persist for months or years on regular doses (for instance, those used to treat osteoporosis routinely). However, the risks are appearing to be very small. Due to this duality, the dental community is uncertain how BRONJ risk is best managed when implants are placed.

A 2009 opinion article by the U.S. Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons addressed that any operation on the jaws (Implant, Extraction, etc.) involves the danger of BRONJ from low-dose oral treatment (or slow-release injectable) between 0.01% and 0.06%. The risk with intravenous therapy, low jaw processes, individuals with other medical problems and people who have been taking the drugs for more than three years is higher. The position paper proposes that dental surgeons should not place implants in individuals who take an elevated dose of high-frequency intravenous treatment for cancer therapy. Otherwise, the use of bisphosphonates cannot usually influence the survival of the implant.


Biomechanical considerations

Partly because of the strengths they have to sustain the long-standing achievement of implants. Since the implants do not have a periodontal ligament, no pressure sensation is produced when biting. To offset it, dentists must place implants uniformly throughout their supporting prosthesis. Concentrated forces can lead to bridgework fracture, implant parts or bone loss adjacent to the implant. The final place of the implants depends both on biological and mechanical variables (bone type, essential structure, health). Implants in the thicker, more robust bone of the front portion of the lower jaw have lower insufficiency rates than those in the reduced density of the upper jaw, such as the rear. Persons who grind their teeth also improve the implant strength and the probability of failure.

The design of implants must take account of a person’s real life. Tests have been carried out by regulators and the implants sector to determine the mechanical accuracy of implants in a person’s mouth. These tests show that the growing teeth continuously impacts an implant by growing strength (comparable to squashing) until it fails.

If a more precise plan beyond clinical judgment is the need, the dentist will provide the acrylic guide (known as a stent) before surgery. This is in order to guide the implant’s optimum positioning. Dentists are increasingly choosing a CT scan of their jaws and any dentures and schedule a CAD / CAM operation. After computerized planning of a situation from the CT scan, experts can produce the stent with stereolithography. In difficult times, the use of CT scanning also enables the doctor to define and prevent essential structures like the lower alveolar nerve and sinus.


Main procedures for surgery

Placing the implant

Most implant systems have five fundamental implantation steps:

1.              Soft tissue reflection: Dentists produce an incision over a bone crest dividing the thicker gingiva so that it has a thicker tissue band around the final implant. The tissue edges are pushed to reveal the bone. Each is called a flap. Flapless operation is an alternative method. Flapless is where a tiny tissue punch (implant diameter) is removed rather than increasing flaps for the placement of the implant.


2.              High-speed drilling: Dentists place pilot holes at highly regulated speed after reflection of the soft tissues and by using a surgical guide or stent if there is need to prevent burning and/or bone necrosis.



3.              Low-velocity drilling: Dentists extend the pilot hole by increasingly wide drills (usually between three and seven consecutive drilling steps, according to the width and length of the implant). Osteoblast or bone cells are not damaged by overheating. The temperature is low by cooling saline or water spray.


4.              Implant placement: The implant screw shall be positioned and auto-tapped. Otherwise, the prepared site shall be tapped with an analog implant. Then dentists screw it into location with an accurate, torque regulated key to avoid overloading the bone around it (overloaded bone can die, a disease known as osteonecrosis, resulting in the implant inability to integrate or bind with the jawbone completely).



5.              Adaptation of tissue: The dentist adjusts provide a dense band of healthy tissue around the implant. He may “bury” an implant in contrast, where the top of the implant is closed and covered with a covering screw. He may then have to open the implant in a second process at a later date.


Timing of implants after extraction of teeth

After tooth extraction, distinct ways of placing dental implants are available. The following are:

  1.   Immediately placing the implant after extraction.
  2.     Installing the implant after instant removal after some delay (two to three months after extraction).
  3.      Late implant (after tooth extraction three months or more).


There are also several choices for dental implants categorizable into:

  1.        Immediate loading.
  2.        Early loading (from 1 to 12 weeks).
  3.        Loading delayed (over 3 months).


Time to Heal after Dental Implants

The body has to develop the bone to the surface of the implant (osseointegration) to become continuously stable. Based on this biological method, the loading of an implant during osseointegration would lead to a motion to avoid osseointegration. Thus, it would also lead to the improvement of implant failure. Three to six months (depending on different variables) integration time is permissible before the teeth were implanted (restore).

However, later study reveals that the original bone-implant stability is more crucial than a certain healing period to the achievement of the implant implementation. Consequence is, the time to cure is usually based on the bone density of the implant. And rather than the uniform amount of time, the number of implants is split together. If implants resist elevated torques (35 Ncm) and split into other implants, no significant variations exist between implants loaded directly, three months or six months for long-term implant survival or bone loss. The corollary is that even in strong bones, single implants require no-charge periods to minimize the likelihood of failure.


Two-stage and one surgery

The inner parts are either coated with a healing abutment or cover screw when an implant has been positioned. A healing pill moves through the mucosa, and the mucosa around it is adjusted. A cover screw with the dental implant surface is flush and intended to be fully covered with mucosa. After an inclusion period, the mucous membranes and a healing abutment must be reflected in a second surgery.


In the early phases (1970–1990) of implant growth, implant systems used a two-stage strategy to improve their survival. The following research suggests that there is no difference between 1-stage and 2-stage surgery in the survival of implants. It also becomes a concern for the management of soft tissues (gingiva) whether or not the dentist could “bury” the implant at first stage.

If the teeth are deficient or mutilated, implants are put in and osseointegrated. The gingiva is operated around the healing abutments. The downside of a two-stage method is that the repeated surgery will require further surgical treatment and compromise the circulation of the tissue. One or two phases now focus on how the soft tissue around lost teeth can be reconstructed best.


Immediate placement

The positioning of a dental implant on the latest extraction site is part of a progressively prevalent approach to maintain bone and decrease processing time. It reduces the time for therapy on one side, and can enhance esthetics as the soft tissue surround is maintained. In contrast, the rate of original failure in implants can be slightly higher. Conclusions on this subject are, however, hard to draw. This is as only few studies scientifically, rigorously compare the  instant and postponed implants.


Further Procedures for Dental Implants Surgery

For an osseointegrated implant, a right amount of bone must be encircled. It requires a dense, healthy soft tissue (gingiva) around it, to last for long-term survival. It is prevalent that the soft bone or tissue is so weak that either before or during implantation. The surgeon needs to rebuild it.


Reconstruction of hard tissue (bone) under Tooth Implant

If there is a lack of bone, bone grafting is essential. Kinds of fresh implant, for example brief implants and methods for compromising, are always available. The overall objective of the therapy is a minimum bone height of 10 mm and a width of 6 mm. Alternatively, bone defects are graded from A to D. This is where there is an implant probability of osseointegration linked to a bone degree (A=10 + mm of bone, B=7–9 mm, C=4–6 mm and D=0–3 mm).

Dental Crown anatomy showing minute details

Various bone grafting techniques came after development to achieve a sufficient bone width and height. The most commonly used is a guided bone graft increase in which the dentist fills a defect with either bone or allograft (donor or synthetic bone replacement) covered in a half-permeable membrane, and allows it to heal. It can be used as a synthetic bone graft. The natural bone replaces a graft that forms a fresh bony foundation for the implant during the healing stage.


The following are three Popular Practices:
  1.            The sinus lifts
  2.         Lateral alveolar augmentation (increase in area width)
  3.           Vertical alveolar augmentation (increase in the height of a site)


Further, most invasive measures are also available with regard to bigger abnormalities in bone, such as mobilizing the lower alveolar nerve. This is to enable a fixture to be placed on lay bone grafting using iliac crest or another big bone source and microvascular bone graft. The surgeon transplants this fixture to the bone with the source bone and connects it back to the local supply of blood. The final choice as to which method of bone grafting is best based on an evaluation of the level of vertical and horizontal bone loss. This bone loss is categorized into mild (2–3 mm loss), moderate (4–6 mm loss) or serious (more than 6 mm loss). The final choice is based on chosen instances for vertical/horizontal alveolar increase. The development of orthodontic extrusions or orthodontic implant sites may be used.


Reconstruction of Soft Tissue (gingiva)

The gingiva around a tooth has a very heavily attached 2-3 mm pink mucus strip that flows into its cheeks into a darker, broader, unrelated mucus. The dentists must place a tooth with an implant using strong and fixed gingiva for the implant to remain healthy for higher extended periods. This is especially important in implants because the gingiva blood supply around implants is weaker than a tooth (the long biological length) and is more likely to get injury by a long implant attachment. This is especially important for implants.

If an appropriate band of attached tissue is missing, the dentists can recreate a soft tissue grease. Four techniques for transplanting soft tissue are available:

  1.   Dentists may move a tissue roll near an implant to the lip
  2.    Dentists can implant gingiva from the palate
  3.    The dentist can transplant deeper connective tissue from the palate.
  4.    Tissue based on a scalpel in the palate (called a VIP-CT) flap, if a
    bigger piece of tissue is required.


In addition, a band of complete, plump gingiva is required to fill the space on either side of the implant to make an implant look esthetic. The most prevalent complication of soft tissue is called a black-triangle, where the papilla (the tiny triangular tissue between two teeth) shrinks back and leaves a triangular gap between the implant and the adjacent teeth. Expectations of only 2–4 mm of papilla height can be made from dentists over the underlying bone. If the distance between where the teeth touch and bone is more significant, a black triangle can be an expectation.


Recovery after Tooth implant

This prosthesis stage starts once the implant is fully integrated, with an abutment in place to transmit it through the mucosa. Or this may also start with reasonable certainty that its integration takes place. Many practice professionals’ position temporary dents before their osseointegration even in the case of initialloading (less than 3 months). The prosthetic stage of restoring an implant requires equal technical expertise than the surgical one, particularly when many teeth are to be restored, because of their biomechanical factors. In order to uniformly distribute the implants ‘ forces, the dentist works to restore the vertical dimension of occlusion and the esthetics of the smile.


Single Teeth, Bridges and Fixed Dentures

Depending on the implementation, the dentist chooses an abutment. Dentists use custom abutments in many only crown situations and set partial tooth work (bridgework). The surrounding teeth and gingiva make an impression of the top of the implant. At the same time, experts make an abutment and a crown in a dental laboratory. The dentist places abutment on the implant. He screws the abutment screwed through to a thread inside the implant (lag-screw). There are changes, for example, when the abutment is one piece or when dentist uses a stock (pre-fabricated) abutment. There are no variables here. Customized pillars, like a cast metal piece or custom milled from metal or zirconia, can be produced by hand. All of which have the same success rate.

The platform from the implant to the pillar can either be flat or conical. The collar of the abutment is inside the implant in conical fit abutments. This enables an implant to connect to an abutment and a better bacterial screen exists in the implant body. Dentist uses a tight collar on the abutment referable as a platform switching to enhance the Gingival seal around the abutment collar. The mixture of conical fits and platform switches provides slightly better periodontal conditions in comparison to flat top sections.

Regardless of the material or method, the dentist then presses the abutment
and attaches a crown with dental cement, to the abutment. The crown and the
abutment are only one part. The lag-screw is also different when the inside
thread of the implant is securely fitted to the one-piece framework. The success of cement versus screw-conserved prosthetics appears to be no advantage, although the latter is thought to be easier to keep (and to alter when prothesized fractures) and the former provides highly esthetic results.


Prosthetic procedures for removable dentures

In case of a removable tooth, dentists can use custom-made or off-shoe (stock) abutments to keep the tooth. When dentists use customized retainers, a dental laboratory produces anexclusive metal bar with adjustments to keep the tooth. There are four or more implant fixtures, and the implant impression is made. Multiple attachments and the application of semi-precisions (like a tiny diameter pin pushing through the tooth work and into a bar) allow significant retention, but it is still removable and can allow little or no motion in the teeth. The same four implants can, however, securely maintain a fixed tooth at similar expenses and with numerous procedures for distributing the occlusal forces. This provides the wearer of the tooth, a fixed resolution.

Otherwise, stock abutments can be used to keep teeth by using a male adaptor and a female adaptor connected to the implant.

There are two popular kinds of adapters:

  1.   The ball and socket style retainer
  2.   Button-style adapter

These kinds of supplements enable motion of the tooth but retain enough for the dentures in comparison to standard dentures to enhance their quality of life. Regardless of the type of adapter, a female portion of the adapter housed inside the denture requires periodical replacement. But for various removable alternatives, the number and adapter type do not seem to influence patient satisfaction.



Dentists must wash the implants with a Teflon tool after positioning (comparable to natural teeth) to remove any plaque. They should care for gingiva with floss due to the more precarious blood supply. Implants lose bone at a pace comparable to the natural in the mouth (e.g., an implant may have a similar illness if someone suffers from periodontal disease), but will last for another time. The expectations are that porcelain on the crowns will color, break, or require repair every ten years, although the service life of dental crowns will vary greatly. This life is based on the position in the mouth, forces of opposing teeth and restore the material. When implants are utilized to keep a full denture, links must be modified or refreshed every one to two years, depending on the type of attachment. A powerful irrigator can also be helpful for implant cleaning.


Dental Implants Slideshare PPT

Dental Implants PPT Slideshare


Risks and complications During surgery

The placement of dental implants is an operation that carries common surgical hazards, including infection, excessive bleeding and tissue flap necrosis. Anatomically nearby buildings, such as the lower alveolar nerve, the maxillary sinus and the vessels of the blood, may also be damaged if an Implant is positioned or produced. Long-term sinusitis is uncommon, even when an implant perforates the lining of the maxillary sinus. The lack of the ability to place the implant in the bone to provide implant stability (the primary implant stability) raises the danger of osseointegration.


First Six-months Stability of the primary implant

Primary implant stability means dental implant stability instantly following implantation. The strength of the titanium screw implant can be assessed non-invasively using a resonance rate assessment in the post-operative bone tissue of the patient. The instant loading with prosthetic rebuilding is possible with sufficient original stabilization, but early loading presents an increased danger of implant failure than standard filling.

With the growth of bone tissue around the implant in the first weeks after surgery, the significance of primary implant stability gradually reduces to the secondary stability. Secondary stability is distinct from the original stabilization, as it is the result of the continuing bone regeneration process (osseointegration). Once this cure is done, the mechanical stability of the first method becomes bio-stability. The structural stability of the implant is critical until the mechanical and biological support of the implant is optimized by bone regrowth. Usually, regrowth takes place 3–4 weeks after implantation. Insufficient primary stability or elevated mobility of original implants may result in failure.


Immediate hazards after the operation:
  1.   Infection (pre-op antibiotics decrease implant failure risk by 33% but does not impact infection risk).
  2.   Excessive bleeding
  3.   Breakdown of flaps (less than 5%)

Failure to integrate

An implant is screened for integration between 8 and 24 weeks. The criteria used to determine implant achievement are significantly variable. The most frequently quotable criteria at implant stage are the lack of pain, mobility, infection, gingival bleeding, radiographic lucency or peri-implant bone loss higher than 1.5 mm.

Dental implant achievement is linked to the ability of the operator, the quality and amount of the bone on site, and the oral hygiene of the patient.  But the most significant factor is the main stability of the implant. While the rate at which implants fail to integrate (owing to individual risk variables) varies significantly, the estimated values are 1 to 6 percent.

Integration failure is common, mainly when the patient carefully follows the guidelines of a dentist or oral surgeon. Immediate loading implants may have a higher failure rate, possibly because they are loaded instantly after trauma or extraction. However, the distinction with adequate care and maintenance for this form of operation is well within statistical variance. Osseointegration failure happens more frequently when a person is either too unhealthy to receive the implant. This failure is also possible if the person has a conduct that contraindicates adequate dental hygiene, including smoking or drug use.


Long Term Results

The long-term complications of restoring implants’ teeth immediately relate to the patient’s risk variables and technology. The risks associated with appearance include an elevated smile line, bad gingival quality and the absence of papillae, difficulty matching the shape of natural teeth which may have unequal contact points or unusual forms, missing bones, atrophied or inappropriate forms, unrealistic patient expectations or low oral hygiene.

Bia-mechanical factors are possible if implant geometry is not similar to that of the natural teeth. For instance, when cantilever extensions are available, where there are fewer implants than roots or teeth that are longer than their supporting implants (low ratio between crown and root). The biomechanical risk similarly increases by grinding teeth, bone absence or low-diameter implants. There is finally a technological risk in which implants can fail because of fractures or a loss of maintenance of their teeth.


Real World Complications

The real-world complications arise from these theoretical hazards. Long-term faulty conditions are either due to bone loss around the tooth, gingiva loss or mechanical failure owing to peri-implantitis. Because an implant has no dental tissue, cavities like natural teeth do not fail. Although large-scale, long-term trials are rare, various systematic reviews estimate that dental implants survive for a longer term (five to ten years) at 93–98%, depending on their clinical use. While all crowns had connection to the teeth with screws during the original growth of implant retaining tooth, latest developments permit the positioning of crowns in dental cement pillars (as they have been placed with a tooth crown). This generates the potential for the cement to get caught in the gingiva and create a peri-implantitis from under the crown during cementation.

While this complication is possible, there seems to be no further peri-implantitis in cement-preserved crowns comparable with general screw-retained crowns. Compounds (two-phase implants) contain breaches and cavities in which bacteria can pass through the oral cavity between the real implant and the superstructure (abutment). These bacteria will return to the adjacent tissue and trigger periimplantitis subsequently. Dentists should lock these inner spaces of the implant as prophylaxis.







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NB The write-up is based on the most prevalent media information and is not a medical advice. Consult your Authorized Cardiologist for any Medical Treatment.

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